Advanced instrumentation techniques sem 8 textbook

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Advanced instrumentation techniques refer to the use of advanced technologies and equipment to measure, analyze, and monitor various physical and chemical parameters. They are used in various fields such as medicine, engineering, chemistry, and physics to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of measurement.

Some of the advanced instrumentation techniques are:

1. Mass spectrometry: It is a technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. It is used to identify molecules or compounds by their mass spectra, which provide information about the chemical composition.

2. Atomic force microscopy: It is a technique used to study surfaces at the atomic level. It uses a cantilever with a sharp tip to scan the surface of a sample and can provide high-resolution images of the surface structure.

3. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: It is a technique used to study molecular structure and dynamics by measuring the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei. It is widely used in chemistry, biochemistry, and medicine.

4. X-ray diffraction: It is a technique used to study the crystal structures of materials. It involves directing X-rays at a crystal and measuring the angles at which the X-rays are diffracted.

5. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy: It is a technique used to study the electrical properties of materials in solution. It involves applying a small AC voltage to a sample and measuring the resulting changes in current and voltage.

Advanced instrumentation techniques have revolutionized many fields by providing accurate and sensitive measurements of physical and chemical parameters. They have also contributed to the development of new materials, drugs, and technologies.