Antiperspirants & Deodorants
What are Deodorants?
• Deodorants are personal care products that are applied topically,
most commonly on the underarms, to minimize the odor caused by
the bacterial breakdown of perspiration in armpits, feet, and other
areas of the body.
• Deodorants are classified as cosmetics by the U.S. Food and Drug
Administration (FDA) and typically contain an odor-masking
fragrance. Deodorants are generally formulated into a solid, aerosol
or liquid base.
What are antiperspirants?
Antiperspirants are typically applied to the under arms, while
deodorants may also be used on feet and other areas in the form of
body sprays. In the United States, the food and drug administration
classifies and regulates most deodorants as cosmetics but classifies
antiperspirants as over-the-counter drugs.
Properties of Deodorants and
• It should not be irritant to the skin .
• It should not deteriorate clothing.
• It should be safe and nontoxic.
• Easy to use and adhere well on skin.
• Mask body odor with perfume.
• Absorb perspiration or inhibit the activity of gram+ ve bacteria ,
which cause body malodour.
• When the body temperature rises, the sympathetic nervous system
stimulates the sweat glands to secrete water to the skin surface,
where it cools the body by evaporation. Thus, sweat is an important
mechanism for temperature control.
Mechanism perspiration control
• Sweating allows the body to regulate its temperature. Sweating is
controlled from a center in the periotic and anterior regions of the
brain’s hypothalamus, where thermo sensitive neurons are located.
• The heatregulatory function of the hypothalamus is also affected by
inputs from temperature receptors in the skin
• Antiperspirants are products whose primary function is to inhibit
perspiration. By inhibiting perspiration, which is a necessary component for
the growth of bacteria that cause malodor, antiperspirants also act as
• Antiperspirants are classified as Over-The-Counter (OTC) drugs by the FDA
because they prevent sweat formation. (a biological function).
• The active ingredient, aluminum-based compounds, gives antiperspirants
their sweat-blocking ability by forming a temporary plug within the sweat
duct that stops the flow of sweat to the skin’s surface.
• A few commonly used antiperspirant active ingredients are aluminum
chloride, aluminum chlorohydrate complexes, and aluminum zirconium
• A subgroup of deodorant , antiperspirant , affects odor as well as
prevent sweating by affecting sweat glands .
How does an antiperspirant work?
• When an antiperspirant is applied to the skin surface, its antiperspirant active
ingredients – usually aluminium salts – dissolve in the sweat or moisture on the
skin surface of the armpit.
• The dissolved substance forms a gel, which creates a small temporary ‘plug’ near
the top of the sweat gland, significantly reducing the amount of sweat that is
secreted to the skin surface.
• Bathing and washing will remove the antiperspirant gel. Re-application of
antiperspirants can be beneficial to help reduce sweating and keep fresh
throughout the day.
• While antiperspirants reduce underarm sweating, they do not impact the body’s
natural ability to control its temperature (thermoregulation). While there are
between 2 and 5 million sweat glands in our bodies, relatively few are located in
the armpits, which produce only about one per cent of the body’s sweat.
● According to Gomes, Drucker & liley, infections caused by anaerotic
bacteria often produce strong odor due to production of short chain
fatty acids, sulfur compounds, ammonia & polamines.
● Chlorine through its lethal activity on micro organism & oxidative
action on dead tissue & bacterial products, eliminate the fetid odor
produced by necrosis.
-trichloro-hydroxy diphenyl ether (Triclosan)
Active ingredient for antiperspirant
• Aluminum chlorohydrate
• Aluminum chloride
• Aluminum bromide
• Aluminum nitrate
• Aluminum iodide
• Magnesium aluminum chloride
• The FDA publishes an Over the Counter (OTC) Drug monograph that lists
which ingredients are approved for use
• The ingredients on this list are limited to:
– natural antimicrobial agents: aluminum chlorhydrate,
– aluminum chloride (must be non aerosol) and aluminum zirconium
• of these compounds, the most commonly used is aluminum zirconium
• Most of these materials are supplied as powders, and they are typically
used at levels of 8-25% based on the weight of the finished product.
• Alcohol is an ingredient present in some roll-ons, aerosols and gels.
• The active ingredients of antiperspirants and deodorants are often
dissolved in alcohol because it dries quickly once applied to the skin
and gives an immediate sense of coolness.
• The bulk of the formulation consists of waxy or fatty materials that are
gelled to form a solid stick.
• Common examples include:
– stearyl alcohol
– cetyl alcohol
– hydrogenated castor oil, and glyceryl stearate.
• These waxy materials are blended with lubricating oils and emollients such
• In addition, talc, starches, or other powders may be added to control stick
consistency and to give the product a dry feel.
Other Ingredients :
• Fragrance and colorants may be added to the formula to improve its
odour or appearance.
• Some additives as calcium pantothenate may be added, Calcium
pantothenate in antiperspirants is claimed to soothe irritated skin and
to promote wound healing, which often occurs with underarm shaving.
Types of antiperspirant
• The products with astringents properties are said to be react with proteins
of the skin and causes coagulation, causing swelling which intern blocks the
pores of the skin, reducing the flow of sweats.
• Liquid antiperspirants mostly contain an aqueous or hydroalchoholic
solution of an astringents salt, a small amount of humectant, perfume,
dispersing agent for the perfume and a deodorant.
• They are generally applied in the form of spary. If aluminium chloride or
sulphate is used as an astringent salt, then the buffer is needed.
• Aluminium chloride is an irritation causing compound and should be used
in low concentration.
• Emulsifier like Tween 40 will serve to sprade the perfume in the solution.
• Alchohol increases the rate of evaporation and prevents hydrolysis.
• Most accepted antiperspirant by the consumer are vanishing cream type since
the product must contain 15 to 20% astringent salt.
• An acid stable emulsifier compitible with the astringent salt should be used.
• A cream with acid stabilized glyceryl monostearate with or without emulsifier can
• Consistency of cream made out of cationic or non ionic emulsifiers are softer than
• Ex. Glyceryl or glycol esters of steartic acidor othe fatty acid used for desired
• The humectants most commonly used in antiperspirants are glycerol and