Biostatistics and research methodology sem8 (unit 3) hand written notes pdf

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Introduction to research:
Research refers to a systematic and scientific approach to investigate a specific phenomenon or set of phenomena. It involves the process of gathering, analyzing, and interpreting data to answer research questions, test hypotheses, and develop theories. Research can be conducted through primary or secondary sources of data, depending on the nature of the research question.

Nonparametric tests and graphs:
Nonparametric tests and graphs are statistical tools used to analyze data that do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests. These tests are also known as distribution-free tests, as they do not assume any specific distribution for the data. Nonparametric tests and graphs are widely used in fields such as social sciences, economics, and healthcare, where the distribution of the data is often not known, or the sample size is too small.

Designing the methodology:
Designing the methodology involves outlining the steps taken to conduct the research, from data collection to data analysis. A well-designed methodology ensures that the research is carried out in a systematic, structured, and rigorous manner, leading to reliable and valid results. The methodology should include information on the sample size, data collection methods, data analysis techniques, and ethical considerations. The methodology should also address any potential biases, limitations, and challenges that the research may face. The design of the methodology will depend on the research question, research objectives, and the type of research being conducted.
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