BUILDING BLOCKS OF
Definition, Types, Ingredients, General formula , Manufacture & Evaluation of :-
Creams are defined as a semisolid dosage form containing one or more
drug substances dissolved or dispersed in a suitable base.
TYPES OF SKIN CREAMS
1) Make up creams
(a) Vanishing cream
(b) Foundation cream
2) Cleansing creams
3) Creams for winter
(a) Cold cream
4) Creams for dry skin
(a) Moisturizing cream
5) All purpose creams
6) Night creams
7) Skin protective & hand creams
INGREDIENTS USED IN SKIN CREAMS
2) Oils,fats & waxes
(a) Mineral oil ( Light liquid paraffin , Heavy liquid paraffin )
(b) Glyceride oil ( Almond oil , Arachis oil , Castor oil )
(c) Fats ( Lauric , Palmitic , Stearic acids & Sesame oil , Olive oil, Coca butter , Peanut oil)
(d) Waxes ( Carnauba wax, Beeswax)
3) Lanolin ( Derived from wool fat )
4) Glycol ( Ethylene glycol , Diethylene glycol & Propylene glycol )
5) Colours ( Saffron , Chlorophyll , Cochineal )
6) Emollients :
Also known as Moisturizers.
7) Emulsifying agents
(a) Inorganic solids :
(b) Gums &
8) Wetting agent :
Type of surface active agents & lower surface tension.
Eg : Soaps
Fatty alcohol sulphates
Sulphated fatty esters & amides
9) Humectants ( Proteins , acids & Polysaccharides )
10) Perfumes ( White blossoms , Rosy dreams , Orange blossom )
11)Some functional raw materials like vitamins, amino acids and anti-inflammatory agents may also be
incorporated in creams
MANUFACTURE OF CREAMS
Higher fatty acids Heating to Stirring & Mixing
Chelating agents Mixing
(I) MOISTURIZING CREAM
When water is lost from stratum corneum more rapidly than it is received from lower layers of skin
, the skin becomes dehydrated.
The dehydrated skin loses it’s flexibility and appears rough.
Creams which restore water or moisture & plasticizes the stratum corneum , provides it’s
flexibility and makes it soft.These types of cream are known as moisturizing cream.
Stearic acid – 4%
Mineral oil – 8%
Lanolin – 1%
Glyceryl monostearate ( self-emulsifying ) – 3%
Isopropyl myristate – 2%
Glycerine – 4%
Propylene Glycol – 4%
Triethanolamine – 0.2%
Water – 100%
Perfume & Preservatives – Q.S
(II) VANISHING CREAM
Creams which spread easily & seem to disappear rapidly when rubbed on the skin are termed as
These creams are composed of emollient esters which leave little apparent film on the skin.
Traditional formulae of vanishing creams are based on stearic acid.
Stearic acid melts above body temperature & crystallizes in a form so as to be invisible providing a
non-greasy film .It also imparts attractive appearance to the cream. 11
Stearic acid – 17%
Potassium hydroxide – 0.7%
Glycerine – 5%
Water – 100%
Perfumes & Preservatives – Q.S
Procedure for preparation of vanishing cream :-
Melt stearic acid in a china dish on a water bath.
In a beaker, dissolve potassium hydroxide in water & glycerine to it. Heat the aqueous
solution upto 70ºC on water bath.
When both aqueous & oily phase reaches the same temperature (70ºC) , add aqueous
phase to melted stearic acid with constant stirring.
Remove the china dish from heat & continue the stirring , when the temperature reaches
40ºC , add perfume and mix uniformly until it becomes cool and a homogeneous cream is
(III) COLD CREAM
Cold cream is a w/o type emulsion which when applied to skin , a cooling effect is produced, due
to slow evapouration of water present in the emulsion.
Cold cream is an emulsion of fats and water which can be used to clean & soften the skin.
Cold cream has been used to remove makeup gently at the end of day & it can also be used to
soften tough skin on the knees and elbows or to keep skin protected from harsh winter weather.
Cold cream is prepared by saponification reaction between beeswax & alkali borax.
White beeswax – 10g
Liquid paraffin – 30g
Borax – 0.5g
Rose oil – 0.1ml
Water – 10ml
Procedure for preparation of cold cream :-
Weigh the required quantity of white beeswax & liquid paraffin and melt in a china dish by heating
on a water bath upto 70ºC .
In a glass beaker, dissolve borax in water and heat upto 70ºC .
When both oily and aqueous phases reaches the same temperature (70ºC) , gradually add borax
solution to the melted beeswax drop by drop with constant stirring.
Stir continuously until it becomes cool.When the temperature lowers to 40-45ºC , incorporate rose
oil and mix uniformly , until a homogeneous semi-solid mass is obtained.
EVALUATION OF CREAMS
1) Presence of foreign particles / grittiness :
A Small amount of cream was taken and spread on a glass slide free from grease and was observed
against diffused light to check for the presence of foreign particles.
2) pH of the cream :
About 1g of the cream was weighed & dissolved in 100ml of distilled water and stored for 2 hrs . pH
of different formulations was determined by using digital pH meter.
3) Viscosity :
Viscosity of the formulation was determined by brookfield viscometer using spindle no. S-64 at
20rpm at a temperature of 25ºC & determinations were carried out in triplicate and the average of
three recordings were recorded. 17
4) Spreadability :
Two sets of glass slides of standard dimensions were taken.
The cream formulation were placed over one of the slides.
The other slides was placed on the top of formulation , such that the cream between two slides
were pressed uniformly to form a thin layer.
The spreadability was expressed in terms of time taken by 2 slides to slip off from the cream.
Lesser the time taken for separation of 2 slides , better the spreadability.
5) Irritancy test :
Mark an area( 1 square cm) on the left hand dorsal surface. The cream was applied to the specified
area and time was noted . Irritancy , erythema , edema was checked if any, for regular intervals
upto 24hrs & reported.
6) Patch test :
About 1-3g of cosmetic to be tested was applied on to the sensitive part of the skin. Control patches
were also applied. The site of patch was inspected after 24 hrs.
7) Stability studies :
(a) Globule size :
1ml of cream was diluted to 10ml with glycerine. A few drops of this were transferred onto a
glas slide & was focussed in a microscope. By using eyepiece micrometer, the diameters of 200
particles were determined randomly.
(b) Phase separation :
The formulated cream was kept intact in a closed container at 25-30ºC not exposed to light.
Phase separation was observed carefully every 24hrs for 30 days. Any change in phase separation was
8) Partition coefficient of the cream :
50mg of cream was taken in a separating funnel containing 1:1 ratio of buffer 7.4 & n-hexane.
Then, solution was shaken occasionally & both phases were separated and filtered & the amount
solubilized in each phase was determined by measuring the absorbance using UV spectrophotometer.
9) Extrudability :
The formulations were filled in a standard collapsible capped tube and sealed.
The tube was weighed & recorded. The tube was placed between two glass slides & was clamped.
A 500g weight was placed over the slide & cap was opened.
The amount of cream were collected & weighed.
The amount of cream extruded was calculated and grades were allotted.
10) Thermal stability :
The formulated cream was inserted into glass bottle with the help of a spatula , and tapped to settle to the
bottom, filled upto 2/3rd capacity of bottle & insert plug and tighten the cap.
Filled bottle was kept erect inside the incubator at 45± 1ºC for 48hrs.
The sample will pass the test , if on removal from the incubator shows no oil separation or any other phase