Digestive system hand written notes pdf

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The digestive system, also known as the gastrointestinal tract, is responsible for breaking down food into nutrients that can be absorbed by the body. The system involves a complex series of organs and tissues that work together to process food, extract nutrients, and eliminate waste.

The digestive system begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva. The saliva contains enzymes that begin the process of breaking down carbohydrates. From the mouth, food travels down the esophagus and into the stomach, where it is mixed with gastric juices and further broken down through the process of churning and chemical digestion.

Next, the food passes through the small intestine, where the majority of nutrient absorption occurs. The small intestine is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area and aid in absorption. The villi absorb nutrients such as carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and vitamins, which are transported to the liver and then into the bloodstream to be used by the body.

Any undigested food, fiber, and waste products continue through the large intestine, also known as the colon. The colon absorbs water and electrolytes from the undigested food, forming feces, which are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus.

Throughout the digestive process, several hormones are released by the digestive organs to regulate digestion and appetite. The nervous system also plays a role in digestion, as it stimulates the release of digestive enzymes and hormones in response to food intake.

In summary, the digestive system is a complex system involving multiple organs and processes that work together to break down food, extract nutrients, and eliminate waste. Maintaining a healthy digestive system is key to overall health and wellbeing.