drinking Water medication PPT/PDF

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Department of pharmaceutics

Presented by:

(mpharm 2nd sem)

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drinking WaTer mediCaTion

• Drinking Water Medications are mainly
categorized into two classes

Dry Powder:

• Dry powder reconstituted into liquid
concentrate and then mix into drinking

Concentrated Solution:

• Dispensed directly into drinking water in
medicinal proportion.

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 Oral liquids are one of the easier dosage forms to

 The main challenges are finding a vehicle that result in
adequate chemical stability while achieving a solution.
The first vehicle choice will be water.

 Good understandings of the pH and temperature effect
on solubility are needed to ensure no precipitation of
the marketed product when exposed to abrupt changes
in temperature and pH.

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 If the water does not solubilize the drug, a co-solvent
system is next explored.

 Vehicles to consider include ethanol, propylene glycol,
(low molecular weight), glycerin and triacetin.

 These can be used alone or in combination to give a
truly nonaqueous system.

 In some cases cosolvents with oleaginous vehicles may
be utilized to solubilize the drug

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 A common form of medicating animals for herd or
flock health is through the drinking water. The
medications are formulated as:

 (a) Dry powders for reconstitution into liquid
concentrates to be added to the drinking water or to be
added directly to the drinking water or,

 (b) Concentrated solutions, which are dispensed
directly in drinking water or injected into the drinking
water through medication proportioners incorporated
into watering lines.

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 The advantage of medicating through drinking water
versus feed is that sick or unhealthy animals will
continue to drink water whereas they may not eat.

 The use of water as the drug medium is limited,
however, by the solubility of the drug moiety.

 Since animals drink twice as much water as they
consume feed, the concentration of the drug in the
water needs to be only half that of feed. This factor
may overcome the problem of limited solubility

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➢Automatic metering devices or medication proportions are
used for treating large numbers of animals.
➢The powder medication is dissolved at the time of
administration into water to make a stock solution, which is
proportioned into the drinking water system as the water is
consumed by the animals.
➢ The common dilution in the United States is one fluid ounce
of stock solution (or liquid drug concentrate) to 127 ounces of
water, producing a one fluid ounce per gallon dilution.
➢Whether a product is formulated as a dry powder, dispensing
tablet, or liquid concentrate, the product development/
compounding pharmacist must be concerned with the effects of
the properties of the diluting water media.
➢Tablet or granule hardness, buffer capacity, pH, and total
dissolved solids all play a role in the solubility rate and
availability of the drug substance, as well as its stability

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➢dry products are usually formulated with a sugar diluent such as
lactose or dextrose.
➢ The use of these may cause a build-up of bacteria and fungi in
water lines when the sugar level is high for an extended period of
➢ In the product development laboratory, medicated drinking water
samples must be prepared from these formulations using a range of
hard and soft waters and stored at 25 C and 37±0.5C in metal
containers or troughs (galvanized iron or rusty metal) to simulate the
worst possible conditions of use.
➢The drug stability in the drinking water should be adequate for the
storage length of time listed on the label. Consideration also has to be
given when formulating a liquid concentrate using solvents other than
water of the possibility of precipitation or recrystalization of the drug
when diluted with water.

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• Pastes and gels are semi-solid masses that
can be administered from a flexible tube,
syringe, package or other specialized dosing
devices. Three types of vehicles are used to
formulate a paste or gel.

Oil base

Aqueous Organic

base base




• Oil base consist of vegetable oil thickened with agents such
as aluminum monosterate, colloidal silica and xanthan gum.
Lubricant property make the formulation less adhesive then
water base.

Organic base:
• Glycerin, Propylene glycol, Polyethylene glycol with

corboxyvinyl polymer provide the organic base.

Aqueous Base:
• An aqueous base is less expensive vehicle and less toxic. A

solution of drug in water or water and co solvent is made.
Glycerin, glycols, natural and synthetic gums increases the
viscosity, cohesiveness, plasticity. Water separation is the
most common problem with aqueous base to overcome this
the absorbing material like ,microcrystalline
colloidal silicon dioxide, starch etwcw wc.DaulonM ixb.ceomadded. 11


 The advantage of a paste or gel dosage form is that it
cannot be expelled from the animal’s mouth as readily
as a tablet or liquid.

 Also, mass medicating of animals can be achieved
rapidly and easily with a paste medication using a
multiple-dose dispenser such as a syringe.

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A paste of the proper consistency adheres to the tongue or
buccal cavity and is not readily dislodged. The animal will
eventually end up swallowing it. Characteristics of a suitable
paste formulation are :
1. When placed in the palm of the hand and the hand is
inverted (palm down), it should remain there without falling.
2. When the paste is ejected from the applicator, it should
break free cleanly when rubbed against a flat surface.
3. No paste should continue to ooze from the applicator after
the dose has been ejected.
4. The paste or gel should be free from air bubbles or voids.
5. Only a minimum of force should be needed to expel the
paste from the dispensing device.

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➢A paste is administered to an animal volumetrically.
➢The drug level and density of the paste must be known
to determine the amount of drug delivered per given
➢This takes trial and error in the formulation process to
arrive at the volume of paste necessary to provide the
required dose.
➢Sometimes pastes are used in small animals by
applying them to an animal’s fur on the front paws.
➢The animal will lick the paste off to stay clean.

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➢Biotene Maintenance Gel is pet toothpaste that provides long-
lasting protection to the pet’s teeth and gums.
➢ The plaque removing gel contains Bio-Active Enzymes that
effectively inhibit odor-causing bacteria. (Lysozyme, Lactoferrin,
Glucose Oxidase, Lactoperoxidase, Mutanase and Dextranase)
each have their own unique properties, but the combination
provides a powerful antimicrobial defense system against plaque
and bacteria.
➢it also relieves, soothes and protects their mouth tissues against
dryness, irritation, inflammation and redness.
➢The gentle formulation has a pleasant flavor and is safe for pets
of all ages. Contain no Xylitol, alcohol, chlorhexidine or chlorine
compounds, making it a safe part of the pet’s daily oral care

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 Ramteke KH, Joshi SA, Dighe PA and Kharat
AR. Veterinary Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms:
A Technical Note. Austin Therapeutics.
2014;1(1): 10

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 Describe about drinking water medication
and oral paste and gels ? (5M)

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