DNA is the genetic material in all living organisms. It is responsible for the formation, development, and functioning of every cell in the body. The cell membrane is a delicate layer that surrounds the cell and regulates the flow of molecules in and out of the cell. It is also responsible for maintaining the shape of the cell and protecting it from the outside environment.
The DNA in the nucleus of a cell contains the instructions for making proteins, which are the workhorses of the cell. These instructions are copied in a process called transcription. RNA, a single-stranded copy of DNA, is created that can move out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasm of the cell, where the ribosomes manufacture proteins as per the RNA blueprint.
Protein synthesis inhibitors are drugs that prevent bacteria or other organisms from building essential proteins by interfering with the transcription, translation, and folding of nucleotide sequences into functional molecules. They involve a variety of strategies for inhibiting protein synthesis, such as preventing the ribosome from reading the RNA, blocking the binding of amino acids or RNA molecules that are necessary for protein synthesis, or inhibiting enzymes that are required for the folding of proteins.
Several protein synthesis inhibitors interfere with the formation of peptide bonds, which are required for the assembly of proteins. For example, tetracyclines bind to the ribosome and prevent the aminoacyl-tRNA from attaching to the ribosome’s A site. Other protein synthesis inhibitors, such as macrolides, bind to the ribosome’s large subunit and prevent aminoacyl-tRNA from dissociating after it has added its amino acid to the nascent peptide chain. These inhibitors effectively “freeze” the ribosome, preventing it from completing translation.
In summary, DNA plays a fundamental role in protein synthesis by providing a blueprint for the production of proteins. The cell membrane serves as a barrier between the cell and the external environment but also allows the import and export of critical molecules. Protein synthesis inhibitors inhibit the formation or assembly of proteins by targeting different steps during protein synthesis.