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 Drug may be defined as an agent or

Types of substance, intended for use in the
diagnosis, mitigation, treatment,
cure or prevention of disease in

Dosage Forms human beings or animals.
 Drugs are rarely administered in

their original or crude forms. They Crude Drugs
are administered in different dosage
forms by converting them into
suitable formulations.

1 2

Dosage Forms: Need for Dosage Forms:
1. Accurate dose.

 Dosage forms are the carrier through which drug 2. Protection e.g. coated tablets, sealed ampoules.
molecules are delivered to sites of action within the

3. Protection from gastric juice, e.g. enteric coated tablets.

4. Masking unpleasant taste and odor.
 Every dosage forms is a combination of the drug and 5. Provide drugs within body tissues, e.g. injection

different kinds of non–drug components called as 6. Sustained release medication.
Excipients or additives. 8. Facilitation of Insertion of drugs into body cavities (rectal,

 The additives are used to give a particular shape to vaginal) Provide optimum drug action through inhalation

the formulation, to increase stability, palatability & therapy.

more elegance to preparations. 9. Provide drug action through topical administration at local
area of body. e.g. creams, ointment, emulsion, lotions etc.

3 10. Use of desired vehicle for insoluble drugs. 4




What is Pharmaceutics?

 “Pharmaceutics is the discipline of pharmacy that deals
with the process of turning a new chemical entity (NCE)
or old drugs into a medication to be used safely and
effectively by patients.”

 It is also called the science of dosage form design.

5 6

Classification: Oral Dosage Forms:

Solid dosage Liquid dosage Semi solid
forms forms dosage forms

Unit dosage Bulk Biphasic Monophasic Internal External

Tablets Pills


Internal External Ointment
Tablets Creams
Capsule Liniments pastes
Powders Syrups Lotions Jellies
Pills Internal External Elixirs Gargles

Linctus Throat paints

Drops Mouth washes
Dusting powders

Fine powders Sprays
Insufflations Suppositories

& granules Eye lotions
Dentifrice Pessaries

Eye drops

Nasal drops
Ear powders Capsules

7 Granules 8




Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD… Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

1. Solid dosage forms one of the oldest dosage forms and Tablets:
most of the solid dosage forms are available in Unit dose.

1. These are solid unit dosage forms of medicaments
2. Unit dose may be defined as a exact quantity of the drug intended for oral administration which are prepared by

administered at once. e.g. Tablets, Capsule, pills, cachets, moulding or by compression with or without excipients.
powders etc. 2. The tablets can be prepared by two methods namely as a

3. When drugs are to be administered orally in dry state, I) Dry granulation, II) Wet Granulation

then tablets, capsules are most convenient dosage forms.

4. Some solids are supplied in bulk (Means quantity
available in large). Bulk powders can be supplied as
Internal (Granules, Fine powders) as well as External
(Dusting Powders, Insufflations etc)

9 10

Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD… Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

3. The excipients include:
A coating may be applied to:

– Binders, glidants (flow aids) and lubricants to ensure
efficient tabletting. 1- hide the taste of the tablet’s components.

– Disintegrants to ensure that the tablet breaks up in the 2- make the tablet smoother and easier to swallow .
digestive tract. 3- make it more resistant to the environment.

– Sweeteners or flavours to mask the taste of bad-tasting 4- extending its shelf life.
active ingredients.

– Pigments to make uncoated tablets visually attractive.

11 12




Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD… Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Effervescent Tablets:
Buccal and Sublingual Tablet:

 Effervescent tablets are uncoated tablets that generally
– Sublingual and buccal medications are administered by contain acid substances (citric and tartaric acids) and

placing them in the mouth, either under the tongue carbonates or bicarbonates and which react rapidly in the
(sublingual) or between the gum and the cheek (buccal). presence of water by releasing carbon dioxide.

– The medications dissolve rapidly and are absorbed through  They are intended to be dissolved or dispersed in water
the mucous membranes of the mouth, where they enter before use providing:
into the bloodstream.

A- Very rapid tablet dispersion and dissolution.
– Avoid the acid and enzymatic environment of the stomach

and the drug metabolizing enzymes of the liver. B- pleasant tasting carbonated drink.

– Examples of drugs administered by this route: e.g.
vasodilators, steroidal hormones.

13 14

Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD… Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Chewable Tablet: 1. Capsules are solid unit dosage forms in which one or more

– They are tablets that chewed prior to swallowing. medicaments enclosed within a gelatin shell.

– They are designed for administration to children e.g. 2. Capsules mainly divided in to two parts namely as –

vitamin products. Body (Longest part of capsule shell), Cap (Smallest part of
capsule shell)

1. The capsule are generally prepared by gelatin.
2. Depending on their formulation, two types of gelatin are

used namely as – I) Hard gelatin, II) Soft gelatin.


15 Body 16




Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD… Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Lozenges: Pastilles:

1. It is a solid preparation consisting of sugar and gum, the  They are solid medicated preparations designed to
latter giving strength and cohesiveness to the lozenge dissolve slowly in the mouth. They are softer than
and facilitating slow release of the medicament. lozenges and their bases are either glycerol and gelatin,

2. It is used to medicate the mouth and throat for the slow or acacia and sugar.

administration of indigestion or cough remedies.

Dental Cones:
 A tablet form intended to be placed in the empty socket

following a tooth extraction, for preventing the local
multiplication of pathogenic bacteria associated with
tooth extractions.

 The cones may contain an antibiotic or antiseptic.
17 18

Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD… Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Pills: 6. Disintegration time of pill is uncertain means freshly
prepared pills are disintegrates readily rather than old

1. These are small, rounded solid dosage forms containing
dried pills.

medicaments intended for oral use.
7. It is difficult to prepare pills of uniform size & weight.

2. The medicaments are mixed with excipients to forms a
firms plastic mass.

3. The mass is rolled to uniform pill pipe, which cut into
numbers of uniform pills. The pills are spherical in shape &
produced by rolling them under wooden pill rounder.

4. Sometimes pills are coated with varnish, gold leaf, etc to
improve finish, unpleasant taste & stability.

5. Now a days pills are outdated preparations because of
number of disadvantages such as –

19 20




Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD… Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

1. Granulation is the process in which primary Effervescent Granules:

powder particles are made to adhere to form
1. Effervescent granules are meant for internal use.

larger multiparticle or large particles entities
called granules. 2. They contained medicaments mixed with citric acid,

2. The bitter, nauseous, unpleasant powders can tartaric acid & sodium bi carbonates, sometime
not be given tablets, capsule due to bulk saccharin or sucrose may be added for sweetening taste.
quantity are required to be taken, as well as
they are not given in liquid dosage forms due to 3. Before, administration desired quantity of granules are
their stability such powders are given in the dissolved in water, the acid & bicarbonate reacts with
granules forms. each other to produce effervescence.

3. These powders are mixed with suitable 4. Effervescent granules are prepared by two methods,
exicipent along with granulating agent, prepare

namely as, I) Heat method, II) Wet method
a coherent mass then dried & passed through
the sieve to obtained desired size of granules.

E.g. Effervescent granules 21 22

Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD… Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Powder (Oral):
Liquid Oral (Internal) Dosage Forms:

There are two kinds of powder intended for internal use.
1-Bulk Powders: are multidose preparations consisting of 1. Oral Solution

solid, loose, dry particles of varying degrees of fineness. 2. Oral Suspension
They contain one or more active ingredients, with or
without excipients and, if necessary, coloring matter and 3. Oral Emulsion
flavoring substances. 4. Syrup

– e.g. antacids since the patient measures a dose by volume
using a 5ml medicine spoon. The powder is then usually 5. Elixir
dispersed in water or, in the case of effervescent powders, 6. Linctuses
dissolved before taking.

2-Divided Powders: are single-dose presentations of 7. Oral Drops
powder (for example, a small sachet) that are intended to
be issued to the patient as such, to be taken in or with

23 24




Liquid dosage forms:
Liquid External Dosage Forms:

1. It may be defined as “a solution is a liquid-preparation
1. Liniments that contains one or more soluble chemical substances
2. Lotions dissolved in a specified solvent”

3. Gargles 2. liquid dosage forms are intended for external, internal or
parenteral use.

4. Mouthwashes
3. The component of the solution which is present in a

5. Throat Paints large quantity is known as “solvent” where as the

6. Sprays component present in small quantity is termed as

7. Eye Lotion
4. They mainly classified in to two category namely as –

8. Eye Drop
I) Monophasic liquid dosage forms.

9. Nasal Drop
25 II) Biphasic liquid dosage forms. 26

Advantage: Disadvantage:
1. Immediately available for absorption. 1. Less stable in aqueous system. Incompatibility is faster
2. Administration convenient, particularly for infants, in solution than solid dosage form.

psychotic patients. 2. Patients have no accurate measuring device.
3. Easy to color, flavor & sweeten. 3. Accident breakage of container results in complete loss.
4. Liquids are easier to swallow than solids and are therefore 4. Solution often provide suitable media for the growth of

particularly acceptable for pediatric patient. micro organisms.
5. A solution is an homogeneous system and therefore the 5. The taste of a drug, which is often unpleasant, is always

drug will be uniformly distributed throughout the more pronounced when in solution than in a solid form.

6. Bulky than tablets or capsule, so difficult to carry
6. Some drugs like aspirin, KCl can irritate gastric mucosa if transport.

used orally as a solid dosage forms. But this effect can be
reduce by solution system. 27 28




Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms: Monophasic Liquid Dosage forms

1. Monophasic liquid dosage forms are represent by true or
colloidal solution.

2. The component of the solution which is present in a large Internal Use External Use

quantity is known as “SOLVENT” where as the component
present in small quantity is termed as “SOLUTE”. Solution  Liniments

Syrup  Lotions
3. A solution is homogenous because the solute is an ionic or  Elixirs  Gargles

molecular forms of subdivision.  Linctuses  Mouth Wash
 Drops  Throat paints

4. In case of colloidal solutions, the solutes are present as  Sprays
aggregates although they cannot be seen by necked eye  Inhalations

or ordinary microscope.  Nasal drops
 Eye drops

5. It is sub classified as –  Eye lotions

I) Internal Use, II) External use  Ear drops
29 30

Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD… Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms for Syrup:
Internal Use:

1. It is a concentrated or saturated solutions of sucrose in
purified water.

2. The concentration of sucrose is 66.7% w/w & due to
• Oral solutions are clear Liquid preparations

that it is a viscous preparations.
for oral use containing one or more active 3. The syrup which contains medical substance called as a
ingredients dissolved in a suitable vehicle. medicated syrup & those containing aromatic or

flavored substance known as a flavored syrup.

31 32




Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD… Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Importance of syrup: Elixirs:

1. It retards oxidation because its partly hydrolyzed into 1. It is clear, sweetened, aromatic, hydro-alcholic
reducing sugar. preparations meant for oral use.

2. It prevents decomposition of many vegetable substance 2. The medicated elixirs are generally contained potent
because its have high osmotic pressure which prevent drug like as antibiotics, antihistamine or sedative, where
the growth of bacteria. as non – medicated elixirs contained flavoured.

3. They are palatable due sweet taste. 3. The composition of elixirs contained mainly as ethyl
alcohol (active ingredients),water, glycerin or propylene
glycol, colouring agent, flavouring agent & preservative.

33 34

Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD… Oral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Linctuses: Drops:
1. These are viscous liquid preparations that’s are used for 1. These are liquid preparations meant for oral

the treatment of cough. administration.

2. They contain medicaments which have demulcent, 2. The oil soluble vitamins, such as vitamin A & D
sedative, expectorant action. concentrates in fish – liver oil are presented as drops for

3. They are taken in small doses without diluting with water

to have prolonged effect of medicines. 3. Since these preparations contain potent medicaments,
the dose must be measured accurately

4. Simple syrup is used as a vehicle for most of the 4. The following two methods are commonly used for this

5. Tolu syrup is preferred in certain cases because of its 5. Use of a dropper which is accurately graduated in

aromatic odour & flavour. Moreover it have a mild fractions of a milliliters.
expectorant action

35 6. Use of a pre – calibrated dropper. 36




Monophasic Liquid Dosage Forms for
External Use: Lotions:

1. Liniments are liquid or semi- liquid preparations meant for 1. They are usually aqueous, alcoholic or oily liquid

external application to the skin. preparations.
2. They are usually applied to the skin with friction & rubbing of 2. They are intended for external application without friction

the skin.
or rubbing to the affected area

3. They are usually alcoholic and oily liquid preparations
(Monophasic) or emulsion (Biphasic). 3. Usually applied with the help of some absorbent material

4. Alcoholic liniments are used generally for their rubefacient and such as cotton wool or gauze.
counterirritant effects. Such liniments penetrate the skin more
readily than do those with an oil base. 4. It is generally used to provide cooling, soothing and

protective & antiseptic action.
5. The oily liniments are milder in their action and may function

solely as protective coatings
6. Liniments should not be applied to skin that are bruised or

37 38


1. Gargles are aqueous solutions used for treating throat
infection (pharynx and nasopharynx part). 1. These are aqueous solutions with pleasant or acceptable

taste & odor.
2. Supplied in concentrated forms with directions of dilution

with warm water before use. 2. These are used to make clean & deodorize the buccal
3. They are used into intimate contact with the mucous cavity or used for oral hygiene and to treat infections of

membrane of throat for few seconds, before they are the mouth.
thrown out of the mouth. 3. They mainly contain antibacterial agent, alcohol,

4. They are used to relieve soreness in mild throat infection. glycerin, sweetening agent, flavoring agent & colouring

5. They are also used for their antiseptics, antibiotics and/or

39 40




Throat paints: 1. These are the preparations of drugs in media which may

be aqueous, alcoholic, or glycerin.
1. Throat paints are viscous liquid preparations used for 2. They are applied to the mucous membrane of throat or

mouth and throat infections. nose with an atomizer.

2. Glycerin is commonly used as a base because being 3. The throat sprays must be sprayed from a special type of
viscous it adheres to mucous membrane for long period atomizer known as a nebulizer, which removes the large
and it possess a sweet taste. droplets by baffling system. Only precaution should be

taken that the fine droplet will used to easily reach the

41 42

Biphasic Liquid Dosage Forms: Emulsion:
1. The liquid which consist of two phases are known as a 1. Emulsion is a biphasic liquid preparations containing two

biphasic liquid dosage forms. immiscible liquid (Continuous Phase & dispersed phase)
made missicible.

2. They are sub categorized into two different forms
namely as – 2. The liquid which is converted into minute globules is

called as dispersed phase & the liquid in which the
I) Emulsion globules are dispersed is called the continuous phase

II) Suspension
Two immiscible liquids:

Dispersed phase
1. In emulsion both phases are available in liquid where as Dispersed phase

in suspension, finely divided solid particles are Continuous phase (Internal phase)
continuous phase

suspended in liquid medium. (External phase)

43 44




3. An emulsion is a thermodynamically unstable system consisting
of at least two immiscible liquid phases one of which is Types of Emulsions:
dispersed as globules in the other liquid phase stabilized by a
third substance called emulsifying agent. Simple type:

4. The globule size in emulsion varies from 0.25 to 25 µm. Water in oil (w/o)
Oil in water (o/w)

Depending on globule size:
Micro emulsion
 Fine emulsion

A. Two immiscible liquids not emulsified Special type:
B. An emulsion of Phase A dispersed in Phase B Multiple emulsion (w/o/w, o/w/o)
C. Unstable emulsion slowly separates.
D. The emulsifying agent (white film) places it self on the interface between

Phase A and Phase B and stabilizes the emulsion by preventing phase
45 46


Water in Oil (W/O) Emulsion: Oil in Water (O/W) Emulsion:
1. In this types of emulsion oil is dispersed phase & water is

1. In this types of emulsion water is dispersed phase & oil continuous phase
is continuous phase

2. O/W types of emulsion meant for both Internal use &
2. W/O types of emulsion generally meant for External use.

External use.
3. Examples are butter, lotions, creams etc.

3. Examples for internal use are Vitamin A in corn oil, liquid
4. In rare case they are used internally. paraffin in water etc.

4. Examples for External use are Benzyl benzonate emulsion.
Water is Dispersed Phase:

Oil is Dispersed Phase:
Oil is Continuous Phase:

Water is Continuous Phase:

47 48




Micro Emulsion:
Multiple Emulsion:

1. These are clear dispersions of O/W or W/O in which the
globules have small size like as a 10 nm or 0.01 µm.. 1. These are emulsion with in emulsion & designated as

2. Being cleared products micro emulsion are more popular W/O/W or O/W/O.

now a days. 2. The drugs that is incorporated in the innermost phase
3. Micro emulsions are thermodynamically stable optically must cross two phase boundaries before getting

transparent, mixtures of a biphasic oil–water system absorbed.
stabilized with surfactants. 3. It is generally used in oral sustained release or

intramuscular therapy.
Fine Emulsion:

1. Normally these have a milky appearance.

2. The globule size ranges from 0.25 to 25 µm.
49 50

Suspension: Topical Dosage Forms:

1. Suspensions are the biphasic liquid dosage forms of Ointments:
medicament in which finely divided solid particles ranging 1. Ointment are semisolid preparation meant for application
from 0.5 to 5 micron are dispersed in a liquid or semisolid to skin or mucous membrane.
vehicle, with aid of single or combination of suspending
agent. 2. The ointments are mainly used for their protective or

emollient properties
2. In which solid particles acts as disperse phase where as

liquid vehicle acts as continuous phase 3. It may be defined as a medicament or medicaments
dissolved, suspended or emulsified in ointment base.

3. The external phase (suspending medium) is generally
aqueous in some instance, may be an organic or oily 4. There is no single ointment base which possesses all the
liquid for non oral use. qualities of ideal ointment base, so it become necessary to

4. The particle size for non oral suspension is so important use more than one ointment base in the preparation of

to avoid grittiness to skin. ointment.
51 52




Topical Dosage Forms: CONTD… Topical Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Creams: Pastes:
1. These are viscous semisolid emulsions which are meant for 1. Pastes are semisolid preparations intended for external

external use. application to skin.
2. Cream is divided in to two types namely as 2. The pastes are generally very thick & stiff.

I) Aqueous creams (O/W) 3. They do not melt at ordinary temperature & thus forms a
II) Oily creams (W/O) protective coating over the area where they are applied.

3. In case of aqueous creams the emulsions are o/w type & it 4. Pastes are differ from ointment as they contain a high
is relatively non greasy. The emulsifying waxes are anionic, proportion of finely powdered medicaments.
cationic & non–ionic used. Generally polysorbate, 5. They are mainly used as a antiseptic, protective, soothing
triethanolamine soap are used as emulsifying agent. dressings.

4. In case of oily creams w/o type & it is relatively greasy. The 6. Pastes should be stored & supplied in containers made of
emulsifying agent such as wool fat, wool alcohols, beeswax materials which do not allow absorption or diffusion of
& calcium soap is used. 53 content. 54

Topical Dosage Forms: CONTD… Topical Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Gels (Jellies):

 Gels are semisolid system in which a liquid phase is
constrained within a 3-D polymeric matrix (consisting of 1. Jellies are transparent or translucent, non greasy, semi

natural or synthetic gum) having a high degree of physical solid preparations mainly used for external application to

or chemical cross-linking. skin.

 They are used for medication, lubrication and some 2. These are also used for lubricating catheters, surgical
miscellaneous applications like carrier for spermicidal gloves & rectal thermometer.
agents to be used intra vaginally. 3. The substance like gelatin, starch, tragacanth, sodium

Poultice: alginate & cellulose derivatives are used for the

 It is soft, viscous, pasty preparation for external use. They formulation of jellies.

are applied to skin while they are hot. Poultice must retain 4. Jellies are of three types namely as:
heat for a considerable time because they are intended to a)Medicated jellies
supply warmth to inflamed parts of body. b) Lubricating jellies

 E.g. Kaolin poultice (B.P.C.) c)Miscellaneous jellies
55 56




Topical Dosage Forms: CONTD… Topical Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Dusting Powders:
1. Dusting powders are applied externally to skin, Transdermal Patch:

so they should be applied in very fine state to
avoid local irritation.  A transdermal patch or skin patch is a medicated

2. Dusting powders are prepared by mixing of more adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a

than one ingredients. specific dose of medication through the skin and into the

3. Generally talc or kaolin are used because they
are inert in nature.  An advantage of a transdermal drug delivery route over

other types such as oral, topical, etc is that it provides a
4. Dusting powders are used for antiseptic,

astringent, absorbent, antiperspirant etc. controlled release of the medicament into the patient.

5. Dusting powders are of two sub type they are as  The first commercially available patch was scopolamine
for motion sickness.

I) Medical dusting powder

II) Surgical Dusting powders 57 58

Topical Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Other Topical Dosage Forms: Rectal Dosage Forms:

• Liniments 1- Suppository:
It is a small solid medicated mass, usually cone-

• Lotions shaped,that is inserted either into the rectum (rectal
suppository), vagina (vaginal suppository or pessaries)

• Throat Paints where it melts at body temperature.

• Aerosol sprays

59 60




Rectal Dosage Forms: CONTD…

2- Enema: Parenteral Dosage Forms:
An enema is the procedure of introducing liquids into the
rectum and colon via the anus.  An injection is an infusion method of putting liquid into

Types of enema: the body, usually with a hollow needle and a syringe

1. Evacuant enema: used as a bowel stimulant to treat which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for
the material to be forced into the body.

constipation. E.g. soft soap enema & Mgso4 enema
 The volume of evacuant enemas may reach up to 2

There are several methods of injection, including:

1. Intravenous injection:
 They should be warmed to body temperature before

 It is a liquid administered directly into the bloodstream
administration. via a vein.

2. Retention enema:  It is advantageous when a rapid onset of action is
– Their volume does not exceed 100 ml. needed.
– No warming needed.

61 62

Parenteral Dosage Forms: CONTD…

2. Intramuscular injection:
Vaginal Dosage Forms:

 It is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle.
 Many vaccines are administered intramuscularly. 1- Pessary:
 Depending on the chemical properties of the drug, the – Pessaries are solid medicated preparations designed for

medication may either be absorbed fairly quickly or more insertion into the vagina where they melt or dissolve.

– There are three types:
 Intramuscular injections are often given in the deltoid,

A- Moulded pessaries: they are cone shaped and
vastus lateralis, ventrogluteal and dorsogluteal muscles.

prepared in a similar way to moulded suppositories.
 Injection fibrosis is a complication that may occur if the

B- Compressed pessaries: made in a variety of shapes
injections are delivered with great frequency or with

and are prepared by compression in a similar manner to
improper technique.

oral tablets.
3. Subcutaneous injection:

C- Vaginal capsules: are similar to soft gelatin oral
 Subcutaneous injections are given by injecting a fluid into capsules differing only in size and shape.

the subcutis, the layer of skin directly below the dermis
63 64

and epidermis.




Vaginal Dosage Forms: CONTD… Vaginal Dosage Forms: CONTD…

4- Intrauterine device:
– It is a birth control device placed in the uterus, also known

as an IUD or a coil.
2- Vaginal ring: – The IUD is the world’s most widely used method of

Vaginal rings are ‘doughnut-shaped’ polymeric drug reversible birth control.
delivery devices designed to provide controlled release of
drugs to the vagina over extended periods of time. – The device has to be fitted inside or removed from the

uterus by a doctor.
3- Douche: – It remains in place the entire time pregnancy is not desired.

A douche is a device used to introduce a stream of water Depending on
into the body for medical or hygienic reasons. • the type, a single IUD is approved for 5 to 10 years use.

– There are two broad categories of intrauterine
contraceptive devices:
– A- inert and copper-based devices.
– B-hormonally-based devices that work by releasing a

65 progesterone 66

Inhaled Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Inhaled Dosage Forms: 2- Nebulizer or (atomizer):
 A nebulizer is a device used to administer medication to

1- Inhaler : people in forms of a liquid mist to the airways.

 Inhalers are solutions, suspensions or emulsion of drugs  It is commonly used in treating asthma, and other

in a mixture of inert propellants held under pressure in an respiratory diseases.

aerosol dispenser.  It pumps air or oxygen through a liquid medicine to turn it
into a vapor, which is then inhaled by the patient.

 Release of a dose of the medicament in the form of
droplets of 50 um diameter or less from the container.  As a general rule, doctors generally prefer to prescribe

inhalers for their patients, because:
 In some types, the valve is actuated by finger pressure, in

 1-These are cheaper
other types the valve is actuated by the patient breathing

 2- more portable
in through the mouthpiece.

 3- carry less risk of side effects.
 It is commonly used to treat asthma and other respiratory  Nebulizers, for that reason, are usually reserved only for

problems. serious cases of respiratory disease, or severe attacks.
67 68




Ophthalmic Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Eye Drops:
Ophthalmic Dosage Forms:

 Eye drops are saline-containing drops used as a vehicle to

1. Sterile, aqueous/oily solutions or suspensions intended administer medication in the eye.

for instillation in eye sac.  Depending on the condition being treated, they may
contain steroids, antihistamines or topical anesthetics.

2. Eye drops may contain buffers, stabilizing agents,
 Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them

dispersing agents, solubilising agents, anti-oxidants &
and are only lubricating and tear-replacing solution.

agents required for tonicity/ viscosity adjustment
Ophthalmic Ointment & Gel:

3. Single dose container should not contain anti-microbial
 These are sterile semi-solid preparations intended for

application to the conjunctiva or eyelid margin.

4. In case of multi dose container a dropper should be
supplied with it for administration. Maximum size of such
containers is 10 ml.

69 70

Ophthalmic Dosage Forms: CONTD…

Eye lotions: Otic Dosage Forms:
Ear Drops:

1. These are the aqueous solutions used for washing the
eyes. 1. These are the solutions of drugs that are instilled into ear

cavity with the help of dropper.
2. These are supplied in concentrated forms & are required

2. These are generally used for cleaning the ear, softening
to diluted with warm water immediately before use.

the wax & for treating the mild infections.
3. They should be free from foreign particles to avoids 3. The solutions is generally prepared in water, glycerin,

irritation to the eye. propylene glycol & dilute alcohol.

4. They are required to prepared fresh & should not be
stored for more than two days to avoid microbial

71 72




Nasal Dosage Forms: Intermediate Products Used in

1. Drugs in solution may be instilled into the nose from a
dropper or from a plastic squeeze bottle. Extracts: These are concentrated preparations containing

the active principals of vegetable or animal drugs which
2. The drug may have a local effect, e.g. antihistamine, have been extracted with suitable solvents and

decongestant. concentrated to form liquid, soft or dry extract.
3. Alternatively the drug may be absorbed through the nasal Glycerins: These are solutions of medicaments in glycerol

mucosa to exert a systemic effect. with or without the addition of water.
4. The use of oily nasal drops should be avoided because of Infusions: These are dilute solutions containing the readily

possible damage to the cilia of the nasal mucosa & if it is soluble constituents of crude drugs and prepared by
used for long period may reach the lungs & cause lipoid diluting 1 part of concentrated infusion with 10 parts of
pneumonia. water. Concentrated infusions are prepared by cold

5. Aqueous nasal solutions usually are isotonic and slightly extraction of crude drugs with 25% ethanol.
buffered to maintain a pH of 5.5 to 6.5. 73 74

Oxymels: These are preparations in which the vehicle is a
mixture of acetic acid and honey.

Spirits: They are alcoholic or aqueous alcoholic solutions of
volatile substances used as flavoring agents.

Tinctures: These are alcoholic preparations containing the
active principals of vegetable drugs. They are relatively
weak compared to extracts.

Aromatic waters: These are aqueous solutions, usually
saturated of volatile oils or other volatile substances. Used
as flavoring agents.

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