- Pharmacology 3
- 6th sem handwritten notes
Nasal decongestants are drugs that are used to relieve nasal congestion by reducing swelling and inflammation of the nasal passages. They can be used for the treatment of allergies, sinusitis, and the common cold.
There are two types of nasal decongestants: topical and oral. Topical nasal decongestants are applied directly to the nasal passages and include decongestant nasal sprays and drops, like oxymetazoline or phenylephrine. These drugs work by narrowing the blood vessels in the nasal passages, which reduces swelling and congestion. They typically take effect within minutes and can last for up to 12 hours. It is important to note that long-term use of topical nasal decongestants can lead to a condition called rebound congestion, where the nasal passages become more congested when the medication wears off. Therefore, it is recommended to limit use to no more than three days in a row.
Oral nasal decongestants are taken by mouth and include drugs like pseudoephedrine and phenylephrine. These drugs work by stimulating the sympathetic nervous system to reduce swelling in the nasal passages. They are typically slower to take effect than topical nasal decongestants but can provide relief for up to 12 hours. Like topical nasal decongestants, oral nasal decongestants can also cause rebound congestion and should be used with caution.
Both topical and oral nasal decongestants can have side effects, including increased heart rate, high blood pressure, insomnia, and jitteriness. They should also be used with caution in individuals with certain medical conditions, such as glaucoma, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
It is important to consult a healthcare professional before using nasal decongestants, especially if you have any medical conditions or are taking other medications. Additionally, it is important to follow the recommended dosages and use the medications for the shortest duration possible.