oral cavity problem_ teeth & gums PDF / PPT

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Common diseases of oral cavity

 Tooth decay Mouth ulcer
 Periodental disease Tooth erosion
 Thrush
Stain teeth
 Trench mouth
 Dry mouth Cavities
 Hepatic gingivastomatitis Hyperdontia- Extra teeth
 Mumps Malocclusion


Department of pharmacy, ADTU
TOOTH DECAY (Dental carries)
Tooth decay, also known as dental caries or cavities, is a breakdown of teeth due to acids made by
bacteria. The cavities may be a number of different colors from yellow to black. The most common
bacteria associated with dental cavities are the mutans streptococci, most prominently Streptococcus
mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus, and lactobacilli.
• Accumulation of food particles.
• Accumulation of bacteria in gelatinous mass. Called
as “plague”.
• Anacrobic fermentation of sugar in saliva.
• Release of lactic acid.
• Breakdown of minerals present in enamel.
• Affect internal compound – dentin, pulp tissue.

• Low sugar containing diet.
• Low fluoride.
• Proper brushing
Department of pharmacy, ADTU
Periodental disease is a serious gum infection that damage the soft tissue and
destroys the bone that support the teeth. Periodental disease can cause teeth
to loosen or lead to tooth loss. It is a common disorder but largely preventable.
It is caused by porphyromonas straptococus , Actinomyces

The two most common periodental disease diseases are:
• Gingivitis
• Periodontitis


Department of pharmacy, ADTU
• Gingivitis
Most children have signs of some inflammation
of the gingival tissue at the necks of the teeth;
among adults, the initial stage of gum disease
is prevalent. This condition is termed gingivitis
and is characterised by redness of the gum
margins, swelling and bleeding on brushing.

• Periodontitis
When periodontal disease affects the bone
and supporting tissue, it is termed periodontitis
and is characterised by the formation of
pockets or spaces between the tooth and
gums. This may progress and cause chronic
periodontal destruction leading to loosening or
loss of teeth.
Department of pharmacy, ADTU
Signs and symptoms of periodontitis can include:
• Swollen or puffy gums
• Bright red, dusky red or purplish gums
• Gums that feel tender when touched
• Gums that bleed easily
• Gums that pull away from your teeth (recede), making your teeth look longer
than normal
• New spaces developing between your teeth
• Painful chewing
• Proper hygiene of teeth
• Tetracyclin • Brushing properly on a regular basis
• Deoxycyclin • Regular dental check-ups and professional
• Macrolite teeth cleaning as required.

Department of pharmacy, ADTU
• It is a severe gum infection caused by a
buildup of bacteria.
• It is caused by Prevatella Intermedia,
Fusobacterium Species, Treponema vicentri.
• It is generally occur in HIV infected patient.
• It is severe periodentis.

• Poor dental hygiene
• Poor nutrition
• Smoking
• Stress
• Infection of mouth,teeth or throat.
• HIV and AIDS
• diabetes
Department of pharmacy, ADTU
• Bad breath or bad taste in the • Antibiotics to stop the infection from
mouth. spreading further. Examples-
• Bleeding in response to irritation or amoxicillin, clindamycin, deoxycyclin.
pressure. • Pain relievers
• Professional cleaning from a dental
• Ulcers in the mouth
• Fatigue • Proper ongoing oral hygiene.
• Fever
• Grayish film on the gums.
• Gums that are red, swollen, or
• Pain in the gums.


Department of pharmacy, ADTU
Mouth ulcers — also known as canker sores — are normally small, painful
lesions that develop in mouth or at the base of your gums.

There are three types of canker sores: minor, major, and

• Minor
Minor canker sores are small oval or round ulcers that
heal within one to two weeks with no scarring.
• Major
Major canker sores are larger and deeper than minor
ones. They have irregular edges and can take up to six weeks
to heal. Major mouth ulcers can result in long-term scarring.
• Herpetiform
Herpetiform canker sores are pinpoint size, occur in
clusters of 10 to 100, and often affect adults. This type of mouth
ulcer has irregular edges and will often heal without scarring
within one to two weeks.
Department of pharmacy, ADTU

• Minor mouth injury from dental work, hard brushing, sports injury, or
accidental bite
• Lack of essential vitamins, especially B-12, zinc, folate, and iron
• Allergic response to mouth bacteria
• Dental braces
• Hormonal changes during menstruation
• Emotional stress or lack of sleep
• Bacterial, viral, or fungal infections

Department of pharmacy, ADTU
• Using a rinse of saltwater and baking soda
• Placing milk of magnesia on the mouth ulcer
• Covering mouth ulcers with baking soda paste
• Using over-the-counter benzocaine (topical anesthetic) products like orajel or
• Applying ice to canker sores
• Using a mouth rinse that contains a steroid to reduce pain and swelling
• Placing damp tea bags on your mouth ulcer
• Taking nutritional supplements like folic acid, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, and zinc
• Trying natural remedies such as chamomile tea, echinacea, myrrh, and licorice
Department of pharmacy, ADTU
• It is defined as the irreversible loss of tooth
structure due to chemical dissolution by acids not
of bacterial origin.
• The most common cause of erosion is by acidic
foods and drinks. In general, foods and drinks with
a pH below 5.0–5.7 have been known to trigger
dental erosion effects.

• Accumulation of food particles.
• Accumulation of bacteria in gelatinous mass.
Called as “plague”.
• Anacrobic fermentation of sugar in saliva.
• Release of lactic acid.
• Sessation occurs due to erosion of teeth by
lactic acid.
Department of pharmacy, ADTU
Teeth can become discolored by stains on the
surface or by changes inside the tooth. There are
three main types of tooth discoloration:
• Extrinsic
This occurs when the outer layer of the tooth (the
enamel) is stained. Coffee, tobacco, wine, cola or
other drinks or foods can stain teeth. Smoking also
causes extrinsic stains.
• Intrinsic
This is when the inner structure of the tooth (the
dentin) darkens or gets a yellow tint.
• Age-related
This is a combination of extrinsic and intrinsic
factors. Dentin naturally yellows over time. The
enamel that covers the teeth gets thinner with
age, which allows the dentin to show through.
Foods and smoking also can stain teeth as people
get older.
Department of pharmacy, ADTU

• A cavity, also called tooth decay, is a hole that
forms in your tooth. Cavities start small and
gradually become bigger when they’re left

• Tooth sensitivity
• Tooth pain
• A visible hole in your teeth
• Black or white staining on your teeth


Department of pharmacy, ADTU
• Tooth cavities are caused by plaque, a sticky • Tooth fillings
substance that binds to teeth. Plaque is a • Crowns
combination of: • Root canal
• bacteria
• Early stage treatment
• saliva
• Dealing with pain
• acid
• food particles

A tooth cavity can cause a variety of complications if it’s
left untreated. These include:
• Ongoing tooth pain
• The development of pus around the infected tooth
• An increased risk for breaking or chipping a tooth
• Difficulty chewing food
Department of pharmacy, ADTU
HYPERDONTIA- Extra teeth
Hyperdontia is the condition of having
supernumerary teeth, or teeth that appear in
addition to the regular number of teeth. They can
appear in any area of the dental arch and can
affect any dental organ.

• Supernumerary teeth can be classified by shape
and by position. The shapes include the
• Supplemental (where the tooth has a normal
shape for the teeth in that series);
• Tuberculate (also called barrel shaped);
• Conical (also called peg shaped);
• Compound odontoma (multiple small tooth-like
• Complex odontoma (a disorganized mass of
dental tissue)
Department of pharmacy, ADTU
• Genetic factor
• Environmental factor
• Overactivity of the dental lamina during tooth development

It is important to detect, evaluate, and treat supernumerary teeth as soon as possible
since the additional teeth will present both cosmetic and functional problems for the
affected individual. As a majority of supernumerary teeth cause clinical problems,
treatment generally consists of removal of the teeth when possible.


Department of pharmacy, ADTU

A malocclusion is a misalignment or incorrect
relation between the teeth of the two dental
arches when they approach each other as
the jaws close.

• Malocclusion is often present at birth and
can manifest as space between the teeth,
irregular jaw or mouth size, or even a cleft
• It can also be acquired from habits such as
thumb sucking, tongue thrusting, premature
loss of teeth from an accident or dental
disease, or medical conditions such as
enlarged tonsils and adenoids that lead to
mouth breathing.
Department of pharmacy, ADTU

 Devices
 Dentures, Braces, and Clear aligners

 Preventative
 Hygiene
Personal cleanliness that promotes health and well-being. For example, washing hands before

 Surgery
 Orthognathic surgery and Maxillomandibular advancement

 Specialists
 Dentist
Specialises in diseases of the oral cavity, especially the teeth.