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M.Pharm First Year

Department Of Pharmaceutics 1





➢ Classification of perfumes,

➢ Perfume ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation.

Controversial ingredients:

➢ Parabens,

➢ Formaldehyde liberators,

➢ Dioxane.

➢ References 2



➢ Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aromatic compounds,
fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animal, food
objects and living spaces a pleasant scent.

➢ It is usually in liquid form and used to give a pleasant scent to a
person’s body.

➢ Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous pleasant fragrance that
will provide a long lasting feeling of freshness.

➢ Initially it was only used for religious purpose but now it has become
an ornament of sophistication for both men and women. 3



➢ The Egyptians were the first who used perfume for personal enjoyment, but
the production of perfume was reserved for the priests and they used it in
religious purpose.

➢ The Greek used an extraordinary amount of perfume and for each part of the
body they used a different fragrance for hygiene and cult of the body.

➢ The oldest perfumery was discovered on the island of Cyprus 4,000 years
ago indicating that perfume manufacturing was on an industrial scale.

➢ The Hungarians introduced the first modern perfume, made of scented oils
blended in an alcohol solution at the command of Queen Elizabeth of
Hungary. 4


➢ France is the birthplace of modern perfumery. France provided to grow
aromatic plants for perfume industry with raw materials.

➢ Even today, France remains the centre of the European perfume design
and trade.

➢ England and Germany also contributed a lot in modernization of


➢ Wafting fragrance of a well-perfumed person.

➢ Smell more pleasing.

➢ Prevents from bad odour due to sweat. 5



➢ Some VOCs, such as formaldehyde, ethanol, and d-limonene, cause eye,
nose, and throat irritation, difficulty in breathing, allergy symptoms and

➢ Chemicals may irritate others, especially in tight spaces.

➢ Contact dermatitis, an allergic reaction in the skin can occur.

➢ Diethyl phthalate (DEP) an irritant and suspected hormone disruptor that
is absorbed through the skin and can accumulate in human fat tissue. 6





➢ Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets
of notes, making the harmonious scent accord.

➢ These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation
process of the perfume.

➢ The three notes are:

a. Top notes

b. Middle notes

c. Base notes

➢ Each of these levels, however, has its own primary purpose. 8


Top Notes:

➢ They are generally the lightest of all notes and recognized immediately after
application. Top notes consist of small, light molecules with high volatility
that evaporate quickly.

➢ Common fragrances of top notes include citrus (lemon, orange zest),
light fruits (grape, berries) and herbs (clary sage, lavender). 9


Middle Notes:

➢ The middle notes, or the heart notes, make an appearance once the
top notes evaporate.

➢ The middle note compounds form the “heart” or main body of a
perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of
base notes, which become more pleasant with time.

➢ Common fragrances of middle notes includes rose, lemon, lavender,
nutmeg and jasmine. 10


Base Notes:

➢ Base notes or bottom or dry notes appear while middle notes are fading.

➢ The base and middle notes together are the main theme of a perfume.

➢ Base notes bring depth and solidity to a perfume.

➢ Common fragrances of base notes include sandalwood, vanilla, amber and
musk. 11



➢ Perfumes are classified into five major groups on the basis of
concentration of fragrance and duration of lasting.

➢ They are,

✓Parfum (perfume)

✓Eau de parfum (EDP)

✓Eau de toilette (EDT)

✓Eau de cologne (EDC)

✓Eau fraiche (EF) 12 13


➢ Perfumes can further be classified into following classes:
✓ Traditional
✓ Modern


➢ Single floral:
Fragrance that are dominated by a scent from one particular flower, in
french called soliflore (eg: serge Lutens’sa Majeste La rose which is
dominated by rose).
➢ Floral bouquet:
Containing the fragrance of several flowers in a scent.
Eg: Amber, Wood, Leather, Chypre, Fougere. 14



➢ Bright floral: Fragrance from one or several flowers.

➢ Green: Fragrance from cut grass or leaf. A light or more modern
interpretation of the chypre type.

➢ Aquatic: A very clean, modern smell leading to many of the modern
androgynous perfumes. E.g. Christian Dior’s Dune.

➢ Citrus: Has freshening effect.

➢ Fruity: Aromas of fruits other than citrus. E.g. Ginestet Botrytis

➢ Gourmand: Scent with edible or desert like qualities. E.g. Thierry
Mugler’s Angel. 15



Fragrances used in perfume can be found from following sources:

➢ Plant Source:

Barks, flowers, fruits, leaves, resin, roots, seeds, woods etc.

➢ Animal Source:

Ambergris, Castoreum, civet, honeycomb, Musk etc.

➢ Synthetic Source:

Calone, linalool and coumarin (synthesized from terpenes etc.) 16



➢ Perfumes can be manufactured by following steps:

❑ Collection

❑ Extraction

❑ Blending

❑ Aging


➢ Before manufacturing process begins the sources of suitable fragrances are
collected in the manufacturing centre. 17



➢Oils are extracted from plants and other substances by different methods

a. Steam distillation:

➢steam is passed through plant materials held in a still, whereby the
essential oil turns to gas.

➢This gas is then passed through tubes, cooled, liquefied and collected.

b. Solvent extraction:

➢The flower parts are dissolved in benzene or petrolatum that retains the
fragrance of the flower.

➢Alcohol is used to dissolve the fragrance and heated to obtain it after
evaporation of alcohol. 18


C. Maceration:

➢The plant material is soaked in vegetable oil, heated and strained.

➢This process creates more of infused oil, rather than essential oil.

➢These produced oils can be used for massage.

d. Expression:

➢This method is also known as cold pressing.

➢This process is used to extract volatile oils from citrus fruits such as lemon,
orange, grape fruit etc.

➢The rinds are separated from the fruit and then pressed.

➢The result is a watery mixture of essential oil and liquid which will
separate 19


e. Enflurage:

➢ The enflurage method is called pomade.

➢ It is a process that uses odorless fats that are solid at room
temperature to capture the fragrant compound exuded by plants.

➢ The process can be cold enflurage or hot enflurage.

➢ This method for producing essential oil is not used much any more,
as it is an expensive and time-consuming process. 20



➢Once the perfume oils are collected, they are ready to be blended together
according to a master formula.

➢After the scent has been created, it is mixed with alcohol.

➢ Most full perfumes are made of about 10-20% perfume oils dissolved in
alcohol and a trace of water.


➢ Fine perfume is often aged for several months or even years after
blending to ensure that the correct scent has been achieved. 21



1.Essential oils:

➢ Derived from natural aromatic plant extracts and/or synthetic aromatic

➢ E.g. limonene, linalool, geraniol, citral etc.

2. Fixatives:

➢ Natural or synthetic substances used to reduce the evaporation rate.

➢ E.g. benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol etc. 22


3. Solvents:

➢ The liquid in which the perfume oil is dissolved in is usually 98% ethanol
and 2% water.

➢ Alcohol allows fragrance to spread along with it and does not permit
microbial growth in the perfume. 23



➢ Allergenicity caused by fragrance to the users when added in cosmetic
products has become a key issue and was addressed for the first time in the
second meeting of CHIC ( Cosmetic Harmonization and International Co-

➢ The EU representative addressed the issue of fragrance allergenicity,
referring to the SCCNFP (Scientific Committee for Cosmetic Products and
Non Food Products) opinion that fragrances are a leading cause of contact
allergy and that 24 fragrance ingredients were named as the main cause of
fragrance allergenicity. 24



➢ Annex III of EU Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009 currently lists 26 allergens,
all of which must be listed in the ingredients list on the label or packaging of
a product if they are present in concentrations greater than 0.001% in leave-
on products and 0.01% inrinse-off products.

In 2011, the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) published an
opinion on fragrance allergens in cosmetic products (SCCS/1459/11). In
response to the SCCS opinion, the European Commission published a public
consultation on fragrance allergens. The deadline for comments was 14 May
2014. 25



➢ All cosmetics that contain any fragrances will have the word ‘parfum’ in
the ingredients list.

➢ Fragrance ingredients are tested to assess how likely they are to cause skin

➢ There are 26 fragrance ingredients, listed that are considered more likely to
cause reactions in susceptible people.

➢ These must be indicated in the list of ingredients, in addition to the word

➢ Their concentration should not exceeds 0.001% in leave-on products (e.g. a
moisturiser) and 0.01% in rinse-off products (e.g. a shampoo). 26


➢ This way of labelling cosmetics was introduced in 2005 to help people to
make informed choices about what they buy, particularly if they have a
diagnosed allergy to a specific fragrance ingredient.

➢ Such labelling will also aid dermatologists trying to identify the cause of a
patient’s reaction.

INCI name (International Nomenclature of Cosmetic Ingredients)

 Amyl cinnamal

 Anise alcohol

 Benzyl alcohol

 Benzyl cinnamate

 Cinnamyl alcohol 27


 Linalool

 Hydroxycitronellal

 Benzyl benzoate

 Isoeugenol

 Citronellol

 Amylcinnamyl alcohol

 Hexyl cinnamal

 Benzyl salicylate

 Limonene

 Farnesol

 Citral

 Butylphenyl methylpropional

 Eugenol 28


 Cinnamal

 Methyl 2-octynoate

 Coumarin

 Alpha-Isomethyl ionone

 Geraniol

 Evernia prunastri

 Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene

 Evernia furfuracea

 carboxaldehyde 29





 Fragrance compounds in perfumes will degrade or break down if improperly
stored in the presence of heat, light and oxygen.

 Perfumes are best preserved when kept in light tight aluminium bottles or in
their original packaging when not in use.

 Refrigerated at relatively low temperature between 3 – 7ºC.

 Sprays has an advantage of isolating fragrance inside a bottle and preventing
it from mixing with dust, skin, and detritus which would degrade and alter
the quality of perfume. 31




PARABENS(Isobutylparaben, Butylparaben, Methylparaben,

➢ What they are: A group of preservatives used in many cosmetics to keep
them fresh and germ-free.

➢ They are series of parahydroxybenzoates or esters of parahydroxybenzoic
acid (also known as 4 – hydroxybenzoic acid).

➢ usually listed as methyl-, butyl-, and propyl-paraben on the ingredient list.
➢ Parabens are found in shampoos, commercial moisturizers, shaving gels,

personal lubricants, toothpastes etc.,

➢ The controversy: In 2004, study detected parabens in samples of cancerous
breast tissue. Parabens are also known to mimic estrogen in the body, making
them a possible hormone disrupter. 34


➢ Why they’re bad: These preservatives are used to prevent bacteria, yeast,
and mold from growing in your makeup.

➢ However, they also mimic estrogen in the body and could increase the
expression of genes that may cause human breast tumor cells to grow.

➢ Where you’ll find them: Look for anything that ends in “paraben” on the
ingredient label-especially in deodorant, moisturizer, and makeup.

➢ For trustworthy makeup that’s still beautiful, Tarte cosmetics are all paraben-
free. 35


The latest news: Parabens are readily absorbed by your body and flushed out,
but it’s still unclear whether they pose any long-term health risks.

One thing that is certain is how we’re being exposed to them:

➢ A study in the Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental
Epidemiology found that pregnant women who used more personal-care
products had a higher amount of parabens in their urine;

➢ The biggest contributors were lotions, cosmetics, hair gels, and fragrances.


➢ The European Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS)
Reiterated In 2013 that methylparaben and ethyparaben are safe at
concentrations upto 0.4% in single and in combination 0.8%. 36



➢ Formaldehyde and FRPs is a colorless, strong-smelling gas used in a wide

range of personal care products particularly in shampoos and liquid baby


➢ These chemicals help in preventing microbial growth in water based

products it can be absorbed through the skin.

➢ FOUND IN: Nail polish, nail glue, eyelash glue, hair gel, hair-smoothing

products, baby shampoo, body soap, body wash, color cosmetics 37


Why they’re bad:

➢ Formaldehyde is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the
Environmental Protection Agency, and preservatives like Diazolidinyl urea,
DMaDM Hydantoin, Quaternium-15, and sodium hydroxmethyl glycinate.

➢ All release the carcinogen into hair and skin products to keep bacteria at

➢ So while your shampoo stays bacteria-free, you could experience an
allergic reaction, dermatitis or other skin irritation, eye damage, headaches,
and dizziness.

➢ “These products continue to release formaldehyde over the life of the
product,” says Karen Behnke, CEO and founder of Juice Beauty, so the
sooner you switch, the better. 38


Where you’ll find them:

➢ They’re incredibly common in products like shampoos, conditioners, skin
moisturizers, cleansers, hand cream, hair gel, and shaving cream.

➢ Juice Beauty PomSmooth Shampoo repairs and hydrates color-treated hair
without the help of these preservatives.

➢ Recognized by the EPA as a carcinogen, it’s linked to lung cancers, Hodgkin
lymphoma and leukemia, and myeloid leukemia.

➢ It permeates through inhalation and can also cause eye, nose, and throat
irritation; reproductive and developmental toxicity; asthma; neurologic and
behavioral toxicity; and immunological toxicity. 39



➢ It’s banned for use in cosmetics in Sweden and Japan.

➢ In the EU restricted in personal care products, and labeling is required in
products that do contain these chemicals.

➢ Concentration restricted in Canada. 40



It is a biproduct of PEG, polyethelene, polyoxyethelene. Limit less than
10ppm dioxane is considered safe for human use. It is evaporated easily

Why it’s bad:

➢ This petroleum-derived carcinogen ends up in personal care products as a
byproduct of the chemical process that creates sulfates.

➢ The International Agency for Research on Cancer ranks it as a possible
carcinogen, and the National Toxicology Program also calls it a reasonably
anticipated carcinogen.

➢ It remains on California’s Proposition 65 list of substances known to cause
cancer or birth defects, and is known (at the very least) to cause skin
irritation. 41


➢ Because testing of final products is not required by the US government,
1,4-dioxane is a common hidden ingredient in cosmetics and personal
care products.

➢ EWG’s analysis suggests that 97 percent of hair relaxers, 57 percent of
baby soaps, and 22 percent of all products in Skin Deep database may be
contaminated with 1,4-dioxane.

➢ The ethoxylation process, where carcinogenic ethylene oxide added to
make harsh ingredients milder, also produces 1,4-dioxane as a byproduct,
another hidden ingredient in cosmetics and personal care products. 42


➢ If a manufacturer does test for 1,4-dioxane contamination and
subsequently does not use vacuum-stripping method to remove it, the
dangerous chemical remains in the final product

➢ 1,4-dioxane is rated 8 by EWG; the International Agency for Research on
Cancer has classified it into group 2B, meaning that it is “possibly
carcinogenic to humans;”

Found in:

➢ Products that create suds, like shampoo, liquid soap, and baby bubble
bath. 43


What to look for in label:

➢ Sodium laureth sulfate

➢ PEG compound

➢ Chemicals that include the clauses xyenol


➢ Banned/ found unsafe for use in cosmetics in Canada. 44



1. Text book of cosmetics, Rajesh Kumar Nema, et al, First edition:2009, CBS
Publishers & Distributors, Pg:no:213-223.

2. Cosmetic Technology, Sanju Nanda et al, Reprint edition 2016-2017, Birla
Publications Pvt, Ltd. Pg:no:86-104, 366.

3. Poucher’s perfumes, cosmetics and soap, 10th edition, Edited by Hilda
Butler, Kluwer Academic Publishers,



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