Respiratory system hand written notes pdf

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The respiratory system is a complex organ system that enables us to breathe and maintain the exchange of gases in our body. This system consists of various organs such as the lungs, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli, that work together to bring oxygen in and eliminate carbon dioxide out of the body.

The respiratory system performs two main functions: ventilation and gas exchange. Ventilation involves the movement of air in and out of the lungs, and gas exchange involves the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the bloodstream.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube that connects the mouth and nose to the lungs. It splits into two branches called the bronchi, which lead to the lungs. The bronchi then branch out into smaller tubes called bronchioles, which eventually end in tiny air sacs called alveoli. These alveoli are responsible for gas exchange by transporting oxygen from the air into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide from the bloodstream into the air.

The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system and are located in the chest cavity. They are protected by the rib cage and diaphragm, which help to facilitate breathing. The diaphragm is a muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity and contracts and relaxes to aid in inhalation and exhalation.

The respiratory system also includes other organs such as the nose, mouth, and pharynx, which are involved in breathing and the exchange of gases. The nose and mouth warm, moisturize, and filter the air before it enters the lungs. The pharynx, or throat, connects the nose and mouth to the trachea and allows for the passage of air.

Overall, the respiratory system is essential for maintaining the proper balance of gases in the body, allowing for the delivery of oxygen to the cells and the removal of carbon dioxide waste.