X- Ray Diffraction Method Sem 8 Hand written notes

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X- Ray Diffraction Method Sem 8 Hand written notes advance instrumental analysis

X-ray diffraction method is a non-destructive analytical technique used for the identification and visualization of various crystal structures or molecular arrangements in solids, powders, and liquids. This method requires a source of X-rays, which are directed at a sample of interest.

When the X-rays interact with the sample, they get deflected at specific angles depending on the atomic and molecular arrangement within the sample. This deflection pattern is then recorded using a detector and analyzed to determine the structural information about the sample.

The X-ray diffraction technique can provide a wide range of information such as:

1. Identification of crystalline phases: X-ray diffraction can be used to identify the type and amount of crystalline phases present in a sample.

2. Determining crystal structure: The diffraction pattern can also be used to determine the detailed crystal structure of a compound, including the arrangement of atoms and their distances from one another.

3. Strain and defects: X-ray diffraction can also be used to investigate the presence of strain and defects in existing crystals.

4. Texture analysis: It can also be used to analyze the texture of polycrystalline materials, which refers to the orientation and alignment of multiple crystals.

The X-ray diffraction method is extensively used in materials science, chemistry, physics, geology, and engineering. It is used in various applications such as pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, ceramics, metals, and many others.

In summary, the X-ray diffraction method is a crucial analytical technique for the study and characterization of various materials and their properties. It is a powerful tool that has revolutionized the way scientists investigate the nature of materials and continues to be an indispensable research tool today.