Buccal Delivery Systems Dr. Sushil Raut PPT/PDF

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Buccal Delivery Systems

Dr. Sushil Raut




 The oral cavity is an attractive site for drug
delivery due to ease of administration and
avoidance of possible drug degradation in the
gastrointestinal tract and first-pass

 There are four potential regions for drug
delivery in the oral cavity, namely buccal,
sublingual, palatal, and gingival

 Buccal drug delivery specifically refers to the
delivery of drugs within/through the buccal
mucosa to affect local/systemic
pharmacological actions.




 Buccal-delivered drugs may be used for
treatment of diseases in the oral cavity or for
systemic use

 Limitations of buccal delivery include:
 short residence time
 small absorption area
 barrier property of the buccal mucosa



Anatomy and Biochemistry of Oral



Anatomy and Biochemistry of Oral

 The lining mucosa of the oral cavity is
covered by a stratified, nonkeratinized
squamous epithelium

 Although the surface area of the oral
mucosa is relatively small in comparison to
the skin and the GI tract, its high
vasculature lends itself to potential drug

 The oral cavity may be divided into three
sections depending on variations in the
thickness and nature of the mucosal lining:
 The sublingual mucosa
 The buccal mucosa
 The soft palate 5


Sublingual mucosa

 The sublingual mucosa lines the floor of the
mouth and is the thinnest and the most
permeable region in the oral cavity

 It is supplied with high blood flow and has
sufficient surface area to make it a location of
choice when rapid absorption/onset of drug
action is necessary

 However, its surface is constantly washed by
saliva and this plus tongue activity which
makes it difficult to keep the dosage form in
contact with the mucosa



Buccal mucosa

 The buccal mucosa lines the interiors of the
cheek and can be used for systemic as well
as local delivery

 The surface of buccal mucosa is smooth,
relatively immobile, and more permeable
than other mucosal tissues makes it a
location of choice for controlled release
systems that need to stay adhered for an
extended period

 Buccal mucosa is also more robust and
tolerant to irritation and permanent damage
from adhesion



Buccal mucosa

 Salivary production and composition may
contribute to chemical modification of certain

 Involuntary swallowing can result in drug loss
from the site of absorption

 Constant salivary scavenging within the oral
cavity makes it difficult for dosage forms to
be retained for an extended period of time to
facilitate absorption

 The relatively small absorption area and
barrier properties can limit this route of



Soft palate

 The soft palate is suspended from the
posterior border of the hard palate
connecting the oral and nasal parts of the
pharynx in the roof of the oral cavity

 The palatal mucosa found in the oral cavity is
highly vascularized, thin and mostly covered
with stratified squamous epithelium



Formulation Considerations

 Mucoadhesive polymers
 Penetration enhancers (covered

 Enzyme Inhibitors



Mucoadhesive polymers

 Mucoadhesives are synthetic or natural
polymers that interact with the mucus
layer covering the mucosal epithelial
surface and main molecules constituting a
major part of mucus

 The concept of mucoadhesives has
alerted many investigators to the
possibility that these polymers can be
used to overcome physiological barriers in
long-term drug delivery



Mucoadhesive polymers

 The polymers most commonly used in buccal dry
or partially hydrated dosage forms include
polyacrylic acid (PAA), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA),
sodium carboxy methylcellulose (NaCMC) and
sodium alginate

 New generation of mucoadhesive polymers (with
the exception of thiolated polymers) can adhere
directly to the cell surface, rather than to the
mucus. They interact with the cell surface by
means of specific receptors or covalent bonding
instead of non-specific mechanisms, which are
characteristic of the previous polymers. Examples
of such are the incorporation of L-cysteine into
thiolated polymers and the target-specific, lectin-
mediated adhesive polymers



Mucoadhesive polymers

 Thiolated polymers are mucoadhesive polymers,
which display thiol bearing side chains. These
polymers are obtained by addition of conjugated
sulfhydryl groups

 The presence of thiol groups allows the formation
of covalent bonds with cysteine-rich sub domains
of the mucus gel layer, leading to increased
residence time and improved bioavailability



Enzyme Inhibitors

 The co-administration of a drug with
enzyme inhibitors is another strategy for
improving the buccal absorption of drugs,
particularly peptides.

 Enzyme inhibitors, such as aprotinin,
bestatin, puromycin and some bile salts
stabilize protein drugs by different
mechanisms, including:
 affecting the activities of the enzymes
 altering the conformation of the peptides or proteins
 rendering the drug less accessible to enzymatic


 It has been shown that some mucoadhesive
polymers can act as an enzyme inhibitor 14


Enzyme Inhibitors

 Investigations have demonstrated that polymers,
such as poly(acrylic acid), operate through a
competitive mechanism with proteolytic enzymes

 This stems from their strong affinity to divalent
cations (Ca2+, Zn2+). These cations are essential
cofactors for the metalloproteinases, such as

 Studies suggest that Ca2+ depletion, mediated by
the presence of some mucoadhesive polymers,
causes the secondary structure of trypsin to
change, and initiates a further autodegradation of
the enzyme



Buccal mucoadhesive dosage forms can be
categorized into three types based on their
geometry illustrated in the following:



Buccal Dosage Forms

 Type І: It is a single layer device with
multidirectional drug release This type of
dosage form suffers from significant drug loss
due to swallowing

 Type ІІ: In this type, an impermeable
backing layer is superimposed on top of the
drug loaded bioadhesive layer, creating a
double-layered device and preventing drug
loss from the top surface of the dosage form
into the oral cavity



Buccal Dosage Forms

 Type ІІІ: This is a unidirectional release
device, from which drug loss is minimal, since
the drug is released only from the side
adjacent to the buccal mucosa. This can be
achieved by coating every face of the dosage
form, except the one that is in contact with
the buccal mucosa



Buccal dosage forms

 Buccal Tablets
 Buccal patches
 Buccal films
 Buccal gels and ointments
 Innovative Drug Delivery Systems



Fentanyl Buccal Tablet



Buccal Tablets

 Buccal tablets are small, flat, and oval
shaped dosage form and unlike
conventional tablets allow for drinking
and speaking without major discomfort.

 They soften, adhere to the mucosa and
are retained in position until dissolution
and/or release is complete

 Can be used for both local and systemic
drug delivery



Buccal patches

 Buccal patches are described as
laminates which comprise an
impermeable backing layer, a drug-
containing reservoir layer which
releases the drug in a controlled
manner, and a bioadhesive surface
for mucosal attachment



Buccal film: Zuplenz 8 mg (approved by
FDA, July 7, 2010)



Buccal films

 Buccal films are preferable over
mucoadhesive tablets in terms of patient
comfort and flexibility and they ensure more
accurate drug dosing and longer residence
time compared to gels and ointments

 Buccal films also reduce pain by protecting
the wound surface and hence increase the
treatment effectiveness



Buccal films

 An ideal buccal film should be flexible, elastic,
and soft yet strong enough to withstand
breakage due to stress from activities in the

 Moreover, it should also possess good
mucoadhesive strength so that it is retained
in the mouth for the desired duration



Buccal gels and ointments

 These are semisolid dosage forms having the
advantage of easy dispersion throughout the
oral mucosa

 The problem of poor retention of gels at the
application site has been overcome by using
bioadhesive formulations

 Certain bioadhesive polymers for example,
sodium carboxymethylcellulose undergo a
phase change from a liquid to a semisolid.
This change enhances or improves the
viscosity, resulting in sustained or controlled
release of drugs.



Innovative Drug Delivery Systems

 A novel liquid aerosol formulation (Oral-lyn, Generex
Biotechnology) has been recently developed, and it is
now in clinical phase III trials

 This system allows precise insulin dose delivery via a
metered dose inhaler in the form of fine aerosolized
droplets directed into the mouth

 This oral aerosol formulation is rapidly absorbed
through the buccal mucosal epithelium, and it provides
the plasma insulin levels necessary to control
postprandial glucose rise in diabetic patients

 This novel, pain-free, oral insulin formulation has a
number of advantages including rapid absorption, a
simple (user-friendly) administration technique, precise
dosing control (comparable to injection within one unit)
and bolus delivery of drug. 27