Building Blocks of Hair Care
• A Shampoo is a preparation of a surfactant in a suitable
form – liquid,solid or powder which when used under the
specialized conditions will remove surface grease,dirt and
skin debris from the hair shaft and scalp without adversely
affecting the user.
Characteristics of Shampoo
• It should effectively and completely removed dust or soil, excessive sebum
or other fatty substances, loose corneal cells from the hair and other
residual substances of hair dressings or settings or other materials.
• It should effectively wash the hair.
• It should produce a good amount of foam to satisfy the psycological
requirements of the user.
• The shampoo should be easily removed by rinsing with water.
• It should leave the hair non dry, soft, lustrous, with good , managebility
and minimum of fly away.
• It should impart a pleasant fregrance to the hair.
• It should not make the hand rough and chapped.
• It should not have any side effects or causes irritation to skin or eye.
• The main problem of cleaning hair is removal of fat or
grease which needs a good detergent. Availability of a wide
range of synthetic detergents has led to flood of products in
the market. Detergent power or the removal of dirt
1. The ability of the detergent to wet both the dirt and the
substrate hair fibre.
2. Lowering of interfacial tension to such a level that
displacement of dirt or grease materials becomes easy.
3. Dispersion of dust particles for easy washing and removal.
• To select detergent for using in shampoos the following
factors should be considered.
1. Safety or non toxicity
2. Ease of distribution and lathering power
3. Luster imparted to hair
4. Ease of combing wet hair
5. Speed of drying
6. Ease of setting dry hair
Composition of Shampoos
• Surfactants are the main component of shampoo. Mainly anionic
substance are used cationic, non ionic and ampholytic surfactants have
also some used.
• The raw materials used in manufacture of shampoos are classified as:
1. Principal surfactants which provide detergency and foam.
2. Secondary surfactants which improve detergency, foam and hair
3. Other additives which impart other characteristics to the shampoo
•1. Principal surfactants:
• Anionic surfactants are mostly used as principal surfactants.
• They have very good foaming properties
• Non ionic surfactants have good cleansing activity but do not have
sufficient foaming power. So they are not much used.
• Though cationic surfactants have good foaming character as well
as some cleansing power but are not much used as they are toxic
and cause damage to they eye. But at non toxic low concentration
they are used in hair conditioners.
• Soaps are not preferred as their solutions are alkaline and make
hair dullin hard water they leave a deposite of calcium and
magnesium salts on the hair shaft. However they are cheap and
therefore used in low priced shampoo.
• Ampholytics are generally not as good as anionic also they are more expensive
so they are mainly used as secondary surfactants and as good hair conditioners.
• Alkyl sulphates:
• They are most widely used anionic detergents, particularly lauryl and Myristyl
• They are sulphated derivatives of long chain fatty acid, alcohols, C12 or above ,
obtained by catalytic reduction of fatty acids of coconut and palm kernel oils.
• Various salts of lauryl sulphates like soldium lauryl sulphate, triethanol lauryl
• As magnesium lauryl sulphate is less hygroscopic. It is preferably used in powder
• Sodium lauryl sulphate the most commonly used alkyl sulphate salt has poor
solubility in cold water but solubility increases with temperature and has good
solubility at normal temperature of 35-40 C.
• Alkyl polyethylene glycol sulphates:
• They are more water soluble than sodium lauryl sulphate and thus a
concentrated product can be made.
• They also have high foaming power.
• They can also act as solvents for non polar additives normally required to
be incorporated in shampoos.
• Other anionic surfactants occasionally used are sodium salt of alkyl
benzene sulphonates, paraffin sulphonates, fatty acid soaps.
• As fatty acid soaps have problem with hard water due to presence of
calcium and magnesium, addition of sequestering agents like salts of EDTA
or polyphosphates is required for stabilization
• 2) Secondary surfactants:
• These are added to produce more foam and to improve the condition of
the hair. They are mostly anionic or ampholytic detergents.
• There are several categories of detergents which are used only in
conjuction with other detergents mentioned under principal surfactants.
• These include dialkyl sulphosuccinates, monoalkyl sulphosucciantes,
methyl taurides, fatty acid alkanolamides, acyl amino acids, acyl peptides,
acyl sarcosins, monogyceride sulphates, turky red oil and secondary
alkylsulphates. Some of them are used specifically in particular type of
• Mehtyl taurides, amides of methyl taurine, are amphoteric, they
leave the hair in excelent condition because of the presence of the
amide group. Though their foaming power is not very good but they
are incorporated as hair conditioners.
• Fatty acid alkanolamides , particularly monoalkanolamides such as
monoethanolamides and isopropanolamides, are used along with
lauryl sulphate to increase the solubility of lauryl sulphate and thus
to increase lather.
• Acyl amino acids are in ampholytic class and example is acyl β-
aminopropionates where chain length of acid is of C12 –C14 for best
• Acyl peptides are acyl polyamino acids produced by the reaction of acyl
chloride and hydrolyzed proteins. They have excellent hair conditioning power.
They are costly and have less foaming power.
• Acyl sarcosins contain a CON group and have good hair conditioning effects.
They are normally used along with alkyl sulphates or alkyl ether sulphates.
• Secondary alkyl sulphates were used earlier but are not much used nowadays.
They are good cleansers but have a strong characteristic odour and have effect
• They also hydrolyze on storage. Occasionally , they are used along with alkyl
benzene sulphonates and alkyl sulphates.
• Monoglyceride sulphates, like sulphated monolaurin, are same as lauryl
sulphates and used in various commercial products.
• Turkey red oil form a light coating over hair and are preferably used
in oil shampoos. They have effective cleansing character but very
low foaming effect. The important turkey red oils are sulphonated
caster oil and sulphonated olive oil. Normally they are used in
• Alkyl phosphates are normally used in low foaming shampoos as
they have low foaming power. They also have milder effects on hair.
Some other anionic surfactants are also occasionally used in low
foaming shampoos, as they are good cleansers but not a good
3) Other additives:
• Several additives are incorporated in shampoo products to achieve
specialized characters and other purposes. They can be classified as-
a) Germicides and anti dandruff agents
b) Conditioning agents
c) Pearlscent agents
e) Thickening agents
a) Germicides and anti dandruff agents:
• They are incorporated to prevent microbial infection of scalp and to
treat dandruff respectively.
• common germicides used in soap can be used in shampoo also.
• There are quaternary ammonium compounds such as benzalkonium
chloride, cetrimide etc: some phenol derivatives , tetramethyl
thiuram, disulphide etc
• Substances used as anti dandruff agents are selenium sulphide,
cadmium sulphide, zinc pyridinium thiol-N-oxide etc.
b) Conditioning agents:
• They are mainly fatty substances like lanolin, oils; natural products
like herbal exteracts, egg, amino acids, lecthin and polymeric
substances give a special conditioning effect to the hair.
• If amino acids are incorporated into shampoos, after washing amino
acid remains deposited on the hair and scalp and produce a good
conditioning effect on the hair. Also protein hydrolysates containing
amino acids are incorporated, for conditioning effect
• They form a water soluble complex with Ca++ and Mg++ and thus
prevent the formation of insoluble slats of soaps or detergents by
these two divalent ions present in water.
• Sometimes calcium-salt dispersing agents are incorporated to
disperse the salts formed by the divalents Ca++, Mg++ etc
• Sequestrants like sodium salt of EDTA are used to entrap the
interfering ions like Ca++ and Mg++ present in the water
e) Thickeming agents:
• To make shampoo preparations viscous, for easy handeling and
minimize wastge while pouring , thickening agents are incorporated.
The substances normally used for this purpose are alginates, polyvinyl
alcohol, methy cellulose, colloidal silicates, polyethylene glycol esters
• Sometimes a suitable combination of surfactants also make the
preparation viscous. sulphated castor oil along with sulphated olive
oil is one such combination.
• They are preferred by several people and thus suitable certified
colours can be incorporated to produce a visually atteractive impact.
The colours should be water soluble.
• They are also incorprated to have an after use fragrance on the hair.
They also help to mask the odour of the other ingredients,
perticularly detergents. Various perfumes are used for this purpose.
Perfumes are used in 0.3 – 1.0%.
• They are very important as most products are liable to attack by
microbes. This leads to breakdown of the product, odour,
discoloration and cloudiness. Water soluble preservatives are to be
used and p-hydroxy benzoic acid and its methyl easter, phenyl
mercuric compounds, formaldehyde may be used.
A Shampoo is a preparation of a surfactant in a suitable form – liquid,solid or
powder which when used under the specialized conditions will remove surface
grease,dirt and skin debris from the hair shaft and scalp without adversely affecting
INGREDIENTS FOR SHAMPOO
1) Surfactants :
(a) Anionic surfactants :
Alkyl benzene sulphonates
Alpha oleffin sulphonates
(b) Non-ionic surfactants :
Fatty acid alkanolamides
(c) Amphoteric surfactants :
2) Conditioning agents :
3) Viscosity modifiers :
(a) Electrolytes :
(b) Natural gums :
(c) Cellulose derivatives :
(d) Carboxyvinyl polymers :
Polymer of acrylic acid cross-linked with polyfunctional agent
(e) Others :
Ethoxylated fatty acid diesters
4) Opacifying & Clarifying agents :
Finely dispersed zinc oxide
Milky emulsions of vinyl polymers
5) Preservatives : ( Formaldehyde , Esters of para hydroxy benzoic acid )
Coconut oil – 14% v/v
Olive oil – 3% v/v
Castor oil – 3% v/v
Potassium hydroxide – 8% v/v
Glycerol – 8% v/v
Sodium hexamethyl cellulose – 0.8% v/v
Perfume – 0.3% v/v
Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose – 2.5% v/v
Water – 53% v/v
Procedure for preparation of shampoo :-
Measure the quantity of coconut oil, olive oil , castor oil & take it in a round bottom flask.
Potassium hydroxide dissolved in 3/4th quantity of water was added to it , heat it in a water bath
for 70-80ºC with constant shaking for 1hr.
Take remaining quantity of water and add sodium hexamethyl cellulose , glycerine , perfume &
Then mix both the solution to form a uniform shampoo. 27
TYPES OF SHAMPOO
1) Powder shampoo :
Henna powder – 5%
Soap powder – 50%
Sodium carbonate – 22.5%
Potassium carbonate – 7.5%
Borax – 15%
Perfume – Q.S
2) Lotion shampoo :
Sodium lauryl sulphate – 35%
Glyceryl monostearate – 2%
Magnesium monostearate – 1%
Water – upto 100%
Colour, Perfume & Preservatives – Q.S
3) Liquid shampoo :
Sodium lauryl sulphate – 40%
Sodium chloride – 2-4%
Water – upto 100%
Perfume, Colour & Preservatives – Q.S
4) Anti-Dandruff Shampoo :
Selenium sulphide – 2.5%
Bentonite – 5%
Sodium lauryl sulphate – 35%
Water – Upto 100%
Colour , Perfume , Preservatives – Q.S 29
5) Conditioning shampoo :
Stearyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride – 5.5%
Ethylene glycol monostearate – 2%
Cetyl alcohol – 2.5%
Water – upto 100%
Colour, Perfume & Preservatives – Q.S
WHAT IS DANDRUFF?
• Dandruff is a harmless, clinical condition that occurs when the scalp
becomes dry or greasy and produces white flakes of dead skin that
appear in the hair or on the shoulder.
• Skin cells are formed continuously on the scalp, so the shedding of
the dead skin cells is normal process. However, with dandruff skin
cells are sheds faster and the oil from the scalp causes the skin cells
to clump together and appear as white flakes.
• Dandruff is caused by Malassezia (Pityrosporum) species which uses
the enzyme lipase to break down sebum to oleic acid which
penetrates into the top layer of the scalp and causes inflammation and
increasd skin cell flaking.
• Symptoms of dandruff :- Flaking and sometimes mild itchiness.
• A more severe form of the condition, which includes inflammation of
the skin, is known as seborrhoeic dermatitis.
• Pityrosporum ovale is strongly suspected to play a role in the
manisfestation of the seborrheic dermatitis.
WHAT IS ANTI DANDRUFF SHAMPOO?
• The shampoo which is used to prevent dandruff is known as
Anti dandruff shampoo.
• Dandruff is known to be controlled by fungistatic ingredients
in Anti dandruff shampoo.
• These anti dandruff shampoo formulations include Anti
dandruff agents that are classified into following based on the
mechanism of action:
• 1. Agents inhibiting overproduction of keratinizing cells
• Eg:- Coal tar
• 2. Keratolytic agents that break down cell aggregations
• Eg:- Salicylic acid, colloidal sulfur
• 3. Anti-microbial agents that inhibit Malassezia sp.
• Eg:- Selenium disulphide, Zinc pyrithrone, Ketoconazole etc.
FORMULATION OF ANTI DANDRUFF SHAMPOO
Ingredients and its role
• Selenium sulphide – 2.5% – Anti dandruff agent
• Bentonite – 5% – preservative
• Sodium lauryl sulphate – 35% – Surfactant
• Water – upto 100
• Color, Perfume, Preservatives – Q.S
Method of preparation
• Selenium sulfide, bentonite and SLS (if any of the compound is
solid at ambient temp. and require melting) in a drum oven
• Demineralised water is most commonly used in order to
minimize contamination of the product.
• Mixing and coolingof the prepared shampoo.
• Addin perfume, color, and other preservatives to the shampoo.
• No further processing is required after blending, and the product
may be packed off directly from the mixing vessel.
HOW DANDRUFF SHAPOO WORKS
• Dandruff shampoo has therapeutic effects that soothe and
nourish the scalp to keep it flake-free.
• It contains the ingredients that help restore the health of the
• It reduce the irritation and inflammation of scalp.
• They get rid of the bacteria and other impurities that can trigger
• Anti-fungal shampoos are good for fighting dandruff as they kill
bacteria that may cause irritation on scalp.
HOW DANDRUFF SHAMPOO WORKS
• Some medicated shampoos may have dryingeffect so one
should find suitable one for the hair type.
• It help control the oil production on the scalp and that reduces
the oiliness of the scalp to help control yeast that feeds on
• Many ingredients can help slow down the rate at which skin
cells renew amd other ingredients help get rid of loose flakes to
prevent scaling of scalp.
BENEFITS OF ANTIDANDRUFF SHAMPOO
• With the addition to calming down the irritation, the anti-
dandruff shampoo also reduces the redness. It leaves a
person’s scalp with feeling great and your looks its best.
• The anti-dandruff shampoos are very good for controlling
oiliness of the scalp.
• The anti-dandruff shampoo comes with a soothing formula
which easily calms the irritation, and at the same time, they
also provide healthy hair which is 100% flake free.
• The anti-dandruff shampoo is often formulated with activate
moisturizers. These effective moisturizers regularly target the
dryness, and at the same time, they keep the scalp healthy
and hair beautiful.
• The anti-dandruff shampoos are comprised of zinc-based
activators which can easily calm the itchiness. They make
your scalp more radiant and give a complete comfort.
• The main active ingredients used include salicylic acid, zinc
pyrithione, coal tar, resorcine, selenium and ketoconazole,
according to the National Institutes of Health. Though they
are effective at combating dandruff, they may hold several
potentially negative side effects.
• Selenium Allergy
• Some people may be allergic to selenium, warns the
National Institutes of Health. The institutes also reports that
skin irritation, rashes and other topical side effects are most
often associated with shampoos containing selenium at a
strength of 2.5 percent or higher.
• Ketoconazole Hives
• Ketoconazole may prompt itching of your skin, hives and a rash
when using topically, according to the National Institutes of Health.
More serious side effects, such as an increased risk of cancer, are
related only to internal ingestion of the chemical.
• Salicylic Acid Effects
• Salicylic acid may help with dandruff by loosening dead skin crusts.
You may feel a stinging or burning sensation when applying a
shampoo containing the acid, and it may irritate your skin, according
to the National Institutes of Health. More serious, potential side
effects may include vomiting, dizziness and changes in breathing
rates, though such effects are rare.
What is a conditioning shampoo?
• Conditioning shampoos are formulated to cleanse the hair and
scalp, remove dirt and grime without stripping away too much of
the natural sebum and condition the hair keep it shiny and
• A conditioning shampoo generally comprises of 4-25 weight % of
an anionic surfactant or mixtures of two or more anionic
• 0.025-3 weight % of a cationic deposition polymer.
• 0.1-5 weight % of a detergent soluble silicone with molecular
weight less than 1,00,000 Daltons.
• The critical aspect of 2 in 1 shampoo is compatibility of ingredients.
Most of the conditioners (Stearyl) are cationic and surfactants (Sodium
lauryl sulfate) are anionic.
• Hence the primary challenge is to develop a stable product by
How they work?
• These shampoos are made using cleansing agents, perfume,
preservatives and conditioning agents, which can coat the hair shaft to
make it appear thicker and healthy.
• The conditioning agents in these shampoos smooth the cuticle scales,
to ensure that the hair does not tangle, and help hair eliminate static
electricity when it dries.
Advantages : –
• These rinse out conditioner help detangle knots and snags, soften and
condition without adding any additional weight to the hair. Best for hair
that is not chemically damaged or fine, limp hair (no volume and not
strong hair) if a conditioner is needed.
• Conditioning shampoos condition the hair to keep it shiny and flexible.
• Conditioning shampoos have proved to be extremely good for
dry hair as they add to the natural oil supply and gives dry hair, shine
as well as strength.
Disadvantages : –
• Unless a very light formula is selected, even rinse out conditioners can
weigh down fine strands. Since the conditioner is ultimately rinsed out, it
can help with detangling and snags but ultimately it can not offer enough
intensive conditioning for chemically treated or damaged hair. It can help
soften waves and natural curls but is usually not enough for helping to
• Can not be used too frequently or may build up on the hair. Buildup occurs
when certain products like non-water soluble waxes are used to style
the hair. 2 in 1 shampoos are used continuously.
Example of conditioning shampoo: –
• Pantene Pro V – Cleanse, moisturize and repair damage.
• OptiDerma – Combination of moisture and protective properties.
• Pert Plus – Helps to increase hair strength, prevents har breakage and
improves over all hair health.
EVALUATION OF SHAMPOO
1) Determination of percent of solid contents :
A clean dry evaporating dish was weighed and added 4g of shampoo to it.
Evapourating dish with the shampoo was weighed.
The exact weight of shampoo was calculated & the evapourating dish with the shampoo was placed on a hot
plate until the liquid portion evapourates.
The weight of shampoo only (solids) after drying was calculated.
2) Determination of pH :
The pH of 10% shampoo solution in distilled water was determined at room temperature using a digital pH
3) Determination of viscosity :
It is determined using Brookfield viscometer .
100ml of shampoo is taken in a beaker & spindle is dipped in it for about 5 minutes and then reading is taken.
4) Foaming ability & Foam stability :
50ml of 1% shampoo solution was put into a 250ml graduated cylinder and covered the cylinder with
hand and shaken for 10 times.
The total volume of the foam contents after 1 minute shaking were recorded.
The foam volume was calculated after shaking the volume of the foam at 1 minute interval for 4
minutes were recorded.
5) Skin irritation test :
Patch test technique is used here.
A set of 6 rabbits were used for testing each material.
The shampoo preparations are diluted between concentrations of 8-10%.
Patches containing the shampoo preparations were applied & then removed , the skin sites were
noted for any changes on the surface of skin like edema,erythema formation.
These products are then classified as mild irritant, moderate & severe.
6) Cleaning action :
5g of wool yarn were placed in grease , after that it was placed in 200ml of water containing 1g of
shampoo in a flask .
Temperature was maintained at 35ºC .
The flask was shaked for 4 minutes at the rate of 50 times a minute.
The solution was removed and sample was taken out, dried and weighed & calculated the amount of
7) Dirt dispersion :
Two drops of shampoo were added in a large test tube containing 10ml of distilled water.
1 drop of ink was added ; the test tube was stoppered and shaked it 10 times.
The amount of ink in the foam was estimated as none, light , moderate or heavy.
8) Surface tension measurement :
Measurements were carried out with a 10% shampoo solution in distilled water at room
Thoroughly clean the stalagmometer with purified water because surface tension is highly affected
with grease or other lubricants.
Surface tension measurement is done by the following equation :-
R₂ = ( W₃ – W₁) n₁ * R₁
( W₂ – W₁) n₂
9) Eye irritation test :
About 1% shampoo solution was dripped into the eyes of 6 albino rats with their eyes held open with
the clips at the lid.
The progressive damage to the rabbit’s eyes was recorded at specific intervals over an average
period of 4 seconds.
Reaction to the irritants can include swelling of the eyelid , inflammation of the iris , ulceration ,
haemorrhaging and blindness. 34