CLASSIFICATION OF COSMETICS
Can be classified based on widely used body parts
Eye make ups
Lip decorators & carers
Classification of cosmetics
Types of skin care products
General skin care routines
CLASSIFICATION OF COSMETICS
Depending up on the physical form, cosmetics can be
Emulsions. Eg: cold cream; vanishing cream
Powders. Eg: face powder, talcum powder, tooth powder.
Sticks. Eg: Lipsticks, deodorant sticks.
Oils. Eg: hair oils.
Jellies. Eg: h& jelly
Paste. Eg: Tooth past, deodorant paste.
Soap. Eg; shampoo, shaving soap
Solution. Eg: After shave solution
Aerosols. Eg: After shave spray.
Skin care products are the products used to improve the
appearance & health of skin, formulated for different
types of skin & associated characteristics.
Skin care products include cleansers, facial masks,
toners, moisturizers, sunscreen, tanning oils &
lotions, skin lighteners, serums & exfoliants.
The skin products are designed to solve the problems
from dry skin to oily skin counteract the effects of
ageing, fine lines & wrinkles.
TYPES OF SKIN CARE
1. COLD/VANISH CREAM
Face cream is made up of oils, waxes,
emulsifiers & perfumes.
Vanish cream is made up of steatric acid,
alkali, water & humectants.
Vanish cream get its name from the fact
that it seemed to disappear when applied
It includes face powder, baby powder &
Talc or hydrated magnesium silicate is
most commonly used component in
Other ingredients include : Zinc oxide &
Magnesium oxide for opacity
Magnesium & Zinc stearates for
3. MOISTURIZERS & SUNSCREEN
1. Normal skin
This type of skin has a fine,
even & smooth surface due
to its ideal balance
between oil & moisture
Hence it is neither greasy
Thus, the skin usually
appears clear. This type of
skin needs minimal &
2. Dry skin
Dry skin has a parched
appearance & tends to flake
It is prone to wrinkles & lines
due to its inability to retain
moisture, as well as an
inadequate production of sebum
by sebaceous glands.
Constant protection in the form
of a moisturizer by day & a
moisture-rich cream by night is
essential. Gentle exfoliants
using sugar, rice bran or mild
acids are the most suitable.
3. Oily skin
This type of skin surface is moderately
greasy, which is caused by the over
secretion of sebum. The excess oil on the
surface of the skin causes dirt & dust from
the environment to adhere to it.
Oily skin is usually prone to blackheads,
whiteheads, spots & pimples.
It needs to be cleansed thoroughly every
day, especially in hot or humid weather.
Moisturizing with an oil-free, water-based
& non-comedogenic moisturizer is
required in addition.
Exfoliants that contain fruit acids are
particularly helpful, & fine-grained
exfoliants may help to clear blocked
pores, discouraging breakouts &
improving the skin’s appearance.
4. Combination skin
It is a combination of both oily &
dry or normal skin, where certain
areas of the face are oily & the others
The oily parts are usually found on
a central panel, called the T–Zone,
consisting of the forehead, nose &
chin. The dry areas usually consist of
the cheeks & the areas around the
eyes & mouth.
In such cases, each part of the
face should be treated according to
its skin type. There are also skin care
products made especially for those
who have combination skin.
5. Sensitive skin
Sensitive skin has a tendency to
react to many potential triggers with
irritation, redness, stinging or
burning, flaking, lumpiness & rashes.
The most common causes of
irritation are chemical dyes &
fragrances, soaps, some flower &
spice oils, shaving creams, tanning
lotions or spray tans, changes in
temperature, excessive cleansing or
exfoliating, waxing, threading,
shaving & bleaching.
Sensitive skin is typically dry, but can
be oily, normal or combination as
GENERAL SKIN CARE ROUTINES
Cleansing is the first essential step to any daily
skin care routine.
Cleansers are generally applied to wet skin over
the face & sometimes also the neck, avoiding the
eyes & lips.
A mild cleanser should also be used at night if
makeup has been worn to remove any excess dirt
Eg: Water-based cleansers, benzoyl peroxide or
salicylic acid for acne.
Toners are used after cleansing the skin to
freshen it up and remove any traces of cleanser,
mask or makeup, as well to help restore the
skin’s natural pH.
Toners typically contain alcohol, water, and
herbal extracts or other chemicals depending on
skin type. Toners containing alcohol are quite
astringent, and usually targeted at oily skins.
Dry or normal skin should be treated with
Face masks are treatments applied to
the skin for a period of time, then
removed. Typically, they are applied to
a dry, cleansed face, avoiding the
eyes & lips.
Kinds of masks:
Clay-based masks use kaolin clay
to transport essential oils &
chemicals to the skin & are left on
until completely dry. As the clay
dries, it absorbs excess oil & dirt
from the surface of the skin & may
help to clear blocked pores.
Peel masks are typically gel-like in
consistency, & contain various
acids or exfoliating agents to help
exfoliate the skin, along with other
ingredients to hydrate, discourage
wrinkles, or treat uneven skin
tone. They are also left on to dry,
& then gently peeled off.
Sheet masks consist of a fiber
sheet with holes cut out for eyes &
lips & cut to fit the contours of the
face, onto which serums & skin
treatments are brushed in a thin
layer. Sheet masks are quicker,
less messy, & require no
specialized knowledge or
equipment for their use.
Exfoliants are products that involves the removal of
the dead skin cells to improve the skin’s appearance.
They can even out patches of rough skin, improve
circulation to the skin, clear blocked pores to
discourage acne and improve the appearance and
healing of scars.
They should be applied to wet, cleansed skin, avoiding
the eye area.
Chemical exfoliants may include citric acid (from
citrus fruits), acetic acid (from vinegar), malic acid
(from various fruits), glycolic acid, lactic acid or
Abrasive exfoliants include gels, creams or lotions.
Moisturizers are creams or lotions that hydrate the skin
and help it to retain moisture. They may also contain
various essential oils, herbal extracts or chemicals.
Moisturizer helps prevent flaking and dryness, and may
help to delay the formation of wrinkles.
Moisturizers contain oils like isopropyl palmitate, Stearyl
The skin around the eyes is extremely thin and
sensitive, and is often the first area to show signs of
ageing. Eye creams are typically very light lotions or
gels, and are usually very gentle; some may contain
ingredients such as caffeine or Vitamin K to reduce
puffiness and dark circles under the eyes. Eye creams
or gels should be applied over the entire eye area with
a finger, using a patting motion.
Sunscreen is a lotion, spray, gel or other topical product that
absorbs or reflects some of the sun’s ultraviolet (UV) radiation
on the skin exposed to sunlight and thus helps protect
It should be applied 20 minutes before exposure, and should
be re-applied every four hours.
Depending on the mode of action sunscreens can be classified
into physical sunscreens or chemical sunscreens.
Physical sunscreens- reflect the sunlight & is used to block
UV rays. Eg-Titanium dioxide & Zinc oxide.
Chemical sunscreens- absorb the UV light & is used to
intensify UV rays. The ingredients are-
Dioxybenzone UVA, UVB
Octyl Salicylate UVA, UVB
Oxybenzene UVA, UVB
The efficiency of a
sunscreen has been
measured by its Sun
Deodorants are substances applied to the body to
affect body odor (BO) caused by bacterial growth and the
smell associated with bacterial breakdown
of perspiration in armpits, feet and other areas of the body.
A subgroup of deodorants, antiperspirants, affect odor
as well as prevent sweating by affecting sweat glands.
Eg:Zirconium and aluminum chlorides and hydroxides
o Primer come in various formulas to suit
individual skin conditions. It reduces the
appearance of pore size, prolong the wear
of makeup, and allow for a smoother
application of makeup, and are applied
Concealer is used to cover any
imperfections of the skin. It is often used
for any extra coverage needed to cover
blemishes, under eye circles, and other
Foundation is used to smooth out
the face and cover spots or uneven skin
coloration. Usually a liquid, cream, or
powder, as well as most recently a
light and fluffy mousse.
Face powder is used to set the
foundation, giving it a matte finish, and
also to conceal small flaws or blemishes.
Tinted face powders may also be worn
alone as a light foundation.
Rouge, blush or
blusher is cheek
coloring used to bring
out the color in
the cheeks and make
the cheekbones appear
more defined. Rouge
comes in powder,
cream, and liquid
Contour powder/creams are used to
define the face. They can be used to give
the illusion of a slimmer face or to modify
a person’s face shape in other desired
Highlight, used to draw
attention to the high points
of the face as well as to
add glow to the face,
comes in liquid, cream,
and powder forms. It often
contains a substance to
Bronzer is used to give
skin a bit of color by
adding a golden or bronze
glow, as well as being
used for contouring. It
comes in either matte,
semi matte/satin, or
Lipsticks are intended to add
color and texture to the lips and
often come in a wide range of
colors, as well as finishes such
as matte, satin and lustre.
They are intended to add
shine to the lips, and may also
add a tint of color, as well as
being scented or flavored.
They can be completely clear,
translucent, or various shades
of opacity, including frosted,
glittered, and metallic looks.
It is a used to give the lips an
enhanced, fuller look.
Lip Plumper is distributed as a
viscous liquid applied to the lips
with a roller or brush applicator.
Lip balms are most often used to
moisturize and protect the lips. They
often contain SPF protection.
Lip liner or lip pencil is intended to
fill uneven areas on the outer edges
of the lips after applying lipstick,
therefore giving a smooth shape. It is
also used to outline the lips.
Types of Shampoo
Hair Growing Aids
Tools for Hairstyling
Shampoo is a hair care product used for the removal
of oils ,dirt , skin particles, dandruff, environmental
pollutants and other contaminant particles that gradually
build up in hair.
The goal is to remove the unwanted build-up without
stripping out so much sebum as to make hair
A shampoo should have the following qualities:
ease of rinsing
minimal skin/eye irritation
thick and/or creamy feeling
slight acidity (pH less than 7)
no damage to hair
repair of damage already done to hair
INGREDIENTS OF HAIR SHAMPOO
Detergents: Sodium or potassium salts of lauryl
sulphate & Lauryl ether sulphate
Preservatives: Alcohols & esters of p-hydroxybenzoic
Opacifying agents: Higher fatty alcihol & propylene
Emollients: Lanolin & its derivatives.
Thickening agents: Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose &
TYPES OF SHAMPOO
Powdered shampoos are designed to work without
water. They are typically based on powders such
as starch, silica or talc, and are intended to physically
absorb excess sebum from the hair before being
Antibacterial shampoos are often used
in veterinary medicine for various conditions,
as well as in humans before some surgical procedures.
Shampoo intended for animals may contain insecticides
or other medications for treatment of skin conditions
or parasite infestations such as fleas or mange.
Shampoo for infants and young children is formulated
so that it is less irritating and usually less prone to
produce a stinging or burning sensation if it were to get
into the eyes.
Hair conditioner is a hair care product
that changes the texture and appearance
It is a thicker substance which coats
the cuticle of the hair itself.
Hair conditioner ingredients include
HAIR GROOMING AIDS
Brilliantine is a hair-grooming
product intended to soften men’s
hair, including beards and
moustaches, and give it a glossy,
Hair Oil- Oils are applied to hair to
give it a lustrous look, to prevent
tangles and roughness and to
stabilize the hair to promote
Hair gel is a hairstyling
product that is used to stiffen hair
into a particular hairstyle.
Hair spray is a product that is sprayed onto hair to
keep it stiff or in a certain style.
Hair spray products are a blend of simple industrial
polymers that provide structural support to hair.
These frequently include copolymers of
polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl
Hair coloring is the practice of changing the color of
Hair dyeing involves treatment of the hair with
various chemical compounds.
Natural Colorant like Heena & black walnut shells.
Hair Dyes are based on oxidation of organic
compound. Typical compounds used are:
1,4-Diaminobenzene & 2,5-Diaminotoluene
Oxidant (Hydrogen peroxide)
Ammonia solution to maintain alkaline medium.
TOOLS FOR HAIRSTYLES
A hair iron or hair tong is
a tool used to change
the structure of
the hair using heat. There
are three general kinds:
Curling irons: used to
make the hair curly.
called straighteners or flat
irons, are used to straighten
Crimping irons: used to
create crimps of the desired
size in the hair.