CONTENTS INTRODUCTION OF PRESCRIPTION PDF/PPT

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Description

PRESCRIPTION
Ms. PRIYA TIWARI
Assistant Professor
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Rama University
Kanpur

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CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION OF PRESCRIPTION

PARTS OF PRESCRIPTION

TYPES OF PRESCRIPTION

LEGAL REQUIREMENT FOR VALID PRESCRIPTION

HANDLING OF PRESCRIPTION

ERROR IN PRESCRIPTION

ABRIVIATIONS

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INTRODUCTION
 It is an order written by a physician, dentist,

veterinarian or a registered medical practitioner
(RMP) to a pharmacist to compound and dispense a
specific drug for the patient. OR

 Prescription is a written order for medication, issued
by physician or RMP. Prescription is relationship
between physician and pharmacist.

Physician (RMP) Pharmacist patients

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Cont…

 The word “prescription” is derived from the Latin
term praescriptus.

(Prae – ‘before’ and scribere- meaning ‘to write’).
 Prescription means ‘to write before’ which means

prescription had to be written before a drug could be
compounded and administered to a patient.

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PARTS OF A PRESCRIPTION
A typical prescription consists of the following parts:
1. Prescriber office information

2. Date

3. Patient information (Name, Age, Sex And Address Of The Patient)

4. Superscription (symbol ℞)

5. Inscription (Medication prescribed)- Main part of prescription

6. Subscription(Direction to Pharmacist/Dispenser )

7. Signatura or Transcription (Direction for Patient)

8. Renewal instructions

9. Prescriber’s signature and registration number.

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1.Physician (Prescriber) office Information:

Information about physician is essential so that the patient

could be contact in emergency. Following information is

mentioned on the prescription

i. Doctor’s or office name.

ii. Address with phone number and e-mail.

iii. Prescription number, (required when calling the

pharmacy for a refill)

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2. Date

It helps a pharmacist to find out the date of
prescribing.

It also helps in know when the medicines were last
dispensed if the prescription is brought for
redispens.

In case of habit forming drug the date prevents
the misuse of the drug by the patient

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3. Patient information

PATIENT INFORMATION (Name, Age, Sex and
Address of the Patient)

Name and address of the patient for identification
purpose.

Age and sex of the patient is required for child
patient to check the prescribed dose.

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4. SUPERSCRIPTION (symbol ℞)

It is represented by ℞ (Latin term) „recipe‟ which
means „take thou‟ or „you take‟.

In olden days, the symbol was considered to be
originated from the sign of Jupiter.

Jupiter is the Greek God of healing.
This symbol was use for requesting God for the quick
recovery of the patient.

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5. INSCRIPTION (Medication prescribed)

It is the main part of the prescription.
It contains the names and quantities of the prescribed

medicaments.
The medicament may be official preparation or nonofficial

preparation.
a.) Official preparation (i.e. from pharmacopoeia) – Only

name of the preparation is written E.g. Piperazine Citrate
Elixir IP

b.) Nonofficial preparation- Quantity of each ingredient
will be given and type of preparation will also be given

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6. SUBSCRIPTION (Direction to Pharmacist)

In this part the prescriber gives direction to the

pharmacista) Regarding the dosage form to be

prepared.

b) Number of doses to be dispensed.

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7. SIGNATURA (Direction for Patient)

To be placed on the label.
It is usually written as „Sig.‟.
The signatura written in english and use some
Latin abbreviations like t.i.d (thrice a day),
b.i.d (twice a day) and o.d (once a day).

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Cont..

Instructions should be written on the label of container so that

the patient can follow them.

The instructions may include-

a) Quantity to be taken(dose of drug)

b) Frequency and timing of administration of the preparation

(dose interval)

c) Route of administration

d) Special instruction (if any)

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8. RENEWAL INSTRUCTIONS

The number of times a prescription is to be repeated is

written by the physician.

It is very important for the case of habit forming drugs

to prevent its misuse.

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9. PRESCRIBER’S SIGNATURE AND
REGISTRATION NUMBER

The prescription must be signed by the prescriber by

his / her own hand.

Registration number should be written in the case of

dangerous and habit forming drugs.

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TYPES OF PRESCRIPTION

Prescriptions can be classified as
a) Compounded prescription

b) Noncompounded prescription

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a). Compounded prescription-

Also known as extemporaneous prescription.
It is an order that requires mixing of one or more
ingredients (active medicaments).

It contains several ingredients which are divided into
the following parts:

(a) Base: The active medicaments (Produce the
therapeutic effect).

(b) Additives-1) It enhances the action of the drug.

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Cont…

2) It makes the preparation more elegant (attractive)
and palatable.

(c) Vehicle: It is the main carrier of the drug. E.g. -In
liquid preparations solvent (water) used as vehicle.
Now a day’s compounding is omitted from
prescription.

E.g. Sodium bicarbonate -3g
Simple Syrup -6ml

Purified Water (q.s.)- 100ml
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b).Non-compounded prescription

Does not require compounding of pharmaceutical

product.

Precompounded drugs supplied by a pharmaceutical

company by its official or proprietary name.

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Legal Requirements for a Valid Prescription

1. Prescription should be written in indelible (can not
erased) ink (may be handwritten or computer
generated)

2. Prescription must be signed in indelible ink by the
practitioner using his own name.

3. Prescription must be dated by the prescriber.
4. Prescription should state address of the practitioner
5. if issued by a dentist the words „for dental use only

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Cont…

6. Prescription always writes legibly.
7. Prescription always space out words and numbers
to avoid confusion.
8. Prescription always contains complete medication
orders.
9. Avoid abbreviations.

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CONT…

Now a day’s electronic prescriptions use, to minimize
medication errors.
The use of Latin word in prescription writing is
traditional.
Now a day’s Latin has slowly gone.

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example

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Latin Terms Latin term / phrases
Abbreviation

Semel in die or omne in o.d. Once a day
die

Bis in die, Bis die b.d Twice a day

Ter in die, Ter die t.i.d Thrice a day

Quartar in die q.i.d., q.d Four times a day

Si opus sit s.o.s When required

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HANDLING OF PRESCRIPTION

The following procedures should be adopted by the
pharmacist while handling the prescription for
compounding and dispensing:

I. Receiving
II. Reading and checking
III. Collecting and weighing the materials
IV. Compounding, packaging and labeling

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I. Receiving

The prescription should be received by the pharmacist.

While receiving a prescription, a pharmacist should

not change his/her facial expression.

It gives an impression that he/she is confused or

surprised after seeing the prescription.

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II. Reading and checking

After receiving the prescription it should be screened
behind the counter.

Prescription authenticity should be checked.
The signature of the prescriber and the date of prescription

should be checked.
The pharmacist should read all the lines and words of the

prescription.
He/she must not guess any word.
If there is any doubt, the pharmacist should consult with

the other pharmacist or the prescriber over telephone.
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(III). Collecting and weighing the material

Before compounding a prescription all the materials

should be collected from the shelves or drawers.

All the materials kept in the left hand side of the

balance. After measuring each material should be

kept on the right hand side of the balance.

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Cont…

After compounding of the prescription materials are
replaced back to the shelves / drawers. While
compounding every container of material should be
checked thrice in the following manner:

(i) When collected from the shelves/drawers.
(ii) When the materials are measured.
(iii) When the containers are replaced back to the
shelves/drawers.

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IV. Compounding, packaging and labeling

Only one prescription should be compounded at a time.
Compounding should be done on a clean table.

All equipment required should be cleaned and dried.
The preparation should be prepared according to the
direction of the prescriber or as per methods given in
pharmacopoeia or formulary.

The compounded preparations should be filled in
suitable containers.

Label the container.
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CARE REQUIRED IN DISPENSING PRESCRIPTION

1.The prescription must be carried with the pharmacist while taking the
medicine out of the shelves.

2.The dispensing balance should always be checked before weighing any
ingredient.

3.All the chemicals should be replaced back in to their original positions in the
shelf.

4.Care should be taken to keep the balance clean after each measurement.

5.Liquid preparations for external use the label must display FOR EXTERNAL
USE ONLY in red ink

6.Before handing over the medicine to the patient, again the preparation should
be checked.

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1. Abbreviation

In most of the prescriptions abbreviated terms are used

by the prescriber that leads to major errors during

interpretation by the pharmacists. E.g. „SSKI‟ is the

abbreviated term of „Saturated Solution of Potassium

Iodide‟.

It is preferable to avoid these types of misleading

abbreviations.
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2. Name of the drugs

Names of some drugs (especially the brand

names) either look or sound alike. So any error

in the name of a drug will lead to major danger

to the patient. e.g. Althrocin – Eltroxin, Acidin

– Apidin , Digoxin- Digitoxin etc.

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3. Strength of the preparation

Drugs are available in the market in various strengths.

So a drug must not be dispensed if the strength is not

written in the prescription. E.g. Paracetamol tablet

500mg should not be dispensed when no strength is

mentioned in the prescription.

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4. Communication failure

Failures during the process of patient management –

Includes illegible handwriting, incomplete

prescribing order. Common errors include: „g‟

mistaken for „mg‟

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5.Dosage form of the drug prescribed

Many drugs are available in more than one dosage

forms. E.g. liquid, tablets, injections or suppositories.

The dosage form intended for the patient must be

mentioned in the prescription to reduce ambiguity.

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6.Dose

If unusually high or low dose is mentioned in the

prescription then it must be consulted with the

prescriber. Some time a sustained release (SR) dosage

form is prescribed thrice or more times daily.

Actually SR dosage forms should be given once or

twice a day.

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7.Instructions to the patient

Some times the instruction for a certain

preparation is either omitted of mentioned

partially. The route of administration should be

mentioned clearly.

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8. Incompatibilities

It is essential to check that there are no pharmaceutical
or therapeutic incompatibilities in the prescription. If
more than two medicines are prescribed then it is the
duty of the pharmacist to see whether their
interactions will produce any harm to the patient or
not. Certain drugs have interactions with food. E..g,
Tetracycline should not be taken with milk or antacid.

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LABELING OF DISPENSED MEDICINES

After dispensing the medicine in a container, a label is
attached by adhesive. The label on the dispensed
medicines should provide the following
information:–

1. Name of the preparation-
When the prescriber mentions the name in the
prescription the same name must be displayed on
the label.

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Example

PIPERAZINE CITRATE ELIXIR IP
If it is a non-official preparation then the name of the
dosage form should be given on the label.
e.g. THE MIXTURE, THE EMULSION, THE
DUSTING POWDER

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Cont…

2. The strength of the medicine-
The strength of the active ingredient in the
preparation must be displayed if it is intended for
internal (oral) purpose. The amount in each unit of
dose should be mentioned.
e.g. In case of oral liquids “Each 5ml contains
250mg”
e.g. In case of tablet “Each tablet contains 500mg”.

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Cont..

The values must be written in whole numbers and if
decimal is not avoidable then a zero is placed before
the decimal point. E.g. instead of 0.1g it should be
100mg, and instead of .5% it should be 0.5%. In case
of an official preparation the strength is not required
to be given, because the name with reference to the
pharmacopoeia is sufficient.
E.g. CHLORAMPHENICOL ORAL SUSPENSION
IP.

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