COSMETIC PREPARATIONS FOR NAIL POLISH
Nails are transparent protective coverings on finger tips and toes of feet.
The care of nails is referred to as Manicuring .
Manicure preparations include:
“Nail lacquers are viscous preparations intended
to decorate nails for fingers and toes”.
It should have proper viscosity wetting and flow properties.
It should have uniform colour.
It should have good gloss and good adhesive properties.
It should have sufficient flexibility so that it does not crack or
It should have sufficient hard surface which is resistant to impact
It should have reasonable drying time (1-2 minutes) without
It should be able to maintain the above mentioned properties for
a reasonable time (about 1 week ).
Pearled nail lacquers:
Made up of lacquer base, colourants, pearl
Creamy nail lacquers:
• Made up of a lacquer base, organic and inorganic
1. Film former
4. Pearl essence
Other Formulating agent
1. Suspending agents
2. Opacifying agents
3. UV absorbers
Impart hardness, toughness, resistance to abrasion ,
viscosity to some extent.
Nitrocellulose-widely used , based on viscosity ,
SR nitrocellulose :10.7 to 11.2% N2
RR nitrocellulose :11.2 to 12.8% N2
Other examples include cellulose acetate , cellulose acetate
butylate, ethyl cellulose, vinyl polymers and various polymers of
It impart adhesion and improve gloss , help in dispersing
insoluble pigments and lakes.
Natural resins :Shellac, benzoin, gum dammar, sandarac, ester
Synthetic resins: Sulphonamide-formaldehyde resins (poly aryl
Commercial resins :
SantoliteMHP : Claimed to Increase hardness of nitrocellulose
and impart gloss to it.
SantoliteMS 80% : Claimed to increase moisture resistance.
•Solvents are volatile organic liquids that combine all the
ingredients of lacquer formulation and make a homogeneous
•Impart brushabilityand for regulating its drying time , viscosity of
•High BP-gives a brighter film .
•Low BP-Lowers viscosity and covering power.
•Solvents are in 3 inter-related categories:
1. Active solvents: True solvents
•Eg., esters, ketonesand glycol ethers for Nitrocellulose.
Not solvents but in conjugation increase the strength of other
Diluents are non-solvents for nitrocellulose . These are used to
stabilize viscosity, to carry resins in solution and to reduce the
effect of subsequent applications on the coat of enamel already
applied, to lower the overall cost of the product.
Eg., Aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and alcohols like
Toulene, benzene, xylene, hexane, heptanes, naphthas, light
They impart flexibility and adhesiveness to the film , and also
effect viscosity and the volatility or rate of drying .
Two types of plasticizers:
Solvent plasticizers: Act as solvents and are of high molecular
Eg., Butyl acetyl ricenoleate
Non-Solvents plasticizers: Act as a softener.
•Impart acceptable shade to the lacquer base .
•The colouringagents must comply with the terms of Drug and
Cosmetic act , should disperse well , be resistant to light , acids
and alkali found in detergents , be non-staining and produce a
Dyes:Soluble dyes alone normally cannot impart sufficient depth
of colour,abandoned due to staining the surface & surroundings
of the nail. Eg., Eosin, erythrosine, carmosine, rhodamine
Lakes:Insolublelakes are incorporated to produce suitable shades.
Eg., Colourlakes mentioned in Schedule Q to Drug and Cosmetics
Other formulating agents:
•Suspending agents: Suspendingproperties have been achieved by
developing thixotropicsystem using pre-heated colloidal clays.
•Eg., Benzyl dimethylhydrogenated tallow
•Opacifyingagents:Theseare whitening agents which help to develop
shades which will reflect the same colouron the nails as they are in the
bottle. Eg., Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide.
•UV absorbers: To prevent deterioration of ingredients due to UV light .
•Eg., Benzophenonesand its derivatives.
•Perfume: used mainly to counteract the unpleasant odourof the
•Eg.,Syntheticperfumes are preferred.
Formulation of a Pearlescent Nail lacquer
Butyl acetate 34.04
Toulenesulphonamideformaldehyde resin 7.10
Dibutyl phthalate 4.80
Stearyl konium hectorite 1.20
Benzophenone – 10.20
D & C Red No. 7 , Calcium lake 0.08
D & C , No. Red . No.34 , Calcium Lake 0.05
FD&C,No.5,Aluminium lake 0.08
Bismuth oxychloride (25%) 5.00
Iron oxides 0.15
Manufacture of Nail
Since nail lacquers are highly inflammable, filling, capping and
packing must be carried out under fire-proof and explosion-proof
Proper care and precautions should be followed, for example,
good ventilation, proper electrical wiring and prohibition of
cigarette smoking in the working area.
PACKING & LABELLING:
Glass bottles with a brush applicator is the most conventional
container which is used for the packaging of nail lacquers.
The capacity varies from 8ml to 18ml .
The applicator consists of an air-tight aluminium canister with an
acrylic fiber tip or nib which applies polish directly to nails.
Before nail lacquer is packed , the following testsshould be carried out as a measure of quality
•Nail removers / nail cleansers are defined as the mixture of solvents
containing small amounts of fat intended to remove the nail enamel.
An ideal lacquer remover should have the following characteristics :
•It should not be too volatile to evaporate during application.
•It should not be non-irritating to surrounding skin.
•It should not leave the nails fatty or sticky.
•It should not have strong degreasing effect to leave nails brittle.
•It should not have unpleasant and obstrusive odour.
Types and formulation of
Type I contains solvent blends and a small percentage of oily
Castor oil 2.5
Diethyleneglycol mono ethyl ether 14.5
Type 2 (Non smearing enamel) contains Water and water miscible
Ethyl acetate 90.0
• Method of preparation :
A simple remover prepared by mixing water and ethyl acetate.
•Type 3 ( Cream type enamel remover) contains solvent, waxes and
Bees wax 3.0
Micro-crystalline wax 1.0
Acetylated monoglycerides 10.0
Diethylene glycol monoethyl ether 52.0
Ethyl acetate 15.0
Stearic acid 15.0
•Method of preparation :
Melt all ingredients except triethanolamine , add triethanolamine to the
mixture with stirring and allow to cool.
•Type 4 (Gel type varnish remover) contains
PPG-12-PEG-50 lanolin 1.0
Pigment (in Butyrolacetone) 0.1
Sodium hydroxide (5% aqueous) q.s
Water To make 100.0
•Type 5 ( Conditioning nail polish remover) contains Malleated
Soyabean oil and acetone.
Method of preparation :
Simple mixing of oil in the solvent.
Evaluation of nail enamel remover:
•Subjects were given a supply of the test nail polish remover,
nail enamel and cotton pads, along with instructions for use and
•Subjects were instructed to remove their nail enamel using the
test product provided, 3 times per week for 4 weeks for a total of
•Subjects were instructed to use their usual brand of hand care
products and not to introduce the use of any new hand care or
nail products for the duration of the study.
•Subjects returned after 4 weeks of use for a final evaluation of
the cuticles for signs of irritation. The last use of the test product
was within 24 hours of the final product.
Pharmaceutical nail lacquer
Fungal nail infection is an infection of the nails by a fungus and is
known as Onychomycosis.
The body normally hosts a variety of bacteria and fungi.
Some of these are useful to the body. Others may multiply quickly
and form infections.
Fungi can live on the dead tissues of the hair, nails, and outer skin
Ciclopiroxtopical solution, 8%, contains a synthetic antifungal
It is intended for topical use on fingernails and toenails and
immediately adjacent skin.
•Rehydrating Nail Hardener: (Miracle Nail)
For weak, thin, peeling, and splitting nails.
•Free Nail Strengthener: Contains calcium
and coffee extract to help strengthen and protect nautral nails from
oxidants; used for weak, thin, splitting or peeling nails, this product is
Toluene, Formaldehyde, and Dibutyl Phthalate free.
•Nail Rebuilder: (Anti-Aging
Nail Rebuilder) For dry, cracked, yellowing and splitting nails
•Almond Cuticle Oil with Ginseng Extract:
Moisturizes and softens cuticles while nourishing and protecting them.
Recent advances (Continuation)
Mood changing nail lacquer:
•This type of nail lacquer changes its shade based on the mood of
•When her mood is normal it remains in light shade.
•When she feels anxious the shade darkens.