FEEDING OF SWINE PDF | PPT

Save (0)
Close

Recommended

Description

1
FEEDING OF SWINE
INTRODUCTION
• Swine / Pigs have been classified as omnivores.
• Their cecum and colon are flexible. Depending on type of food offered these parts of gastrointestinal tract can increase or decrease in size.
• Thus, pigs can tolerate crude fibre in their diet to a greater extent than carnivorous animals but to a lesser extent than herbivorous species.
METHODS OF FEEDING OF SWINE
1. Full feeding by hand or self-feeding vs. Restricted/controlled feeding:
In self feeding grains and supplements may be offered free choice in separate compartments/completely mixed balanced ration may be self fed. The pigs have excellent ability to balance their rations if the grains and supplements are offered separately. It is generally more profitable than the controlled feeding. Self feeding has been proved to be more efficient and economical method of producing market pig. The pigs fed by this method gain faster body weight and require less feed and labor.
Controlled feeding is not a economical one since it decreases the rate and economy of gain. However diets can be reduced to about 80% of the full feed without any serious effect.
2. Wet Vs. Dry feeding:
Large scale pork producers prefer dry feeding whereas backyard pig producers give wet feed because of the limited quantity of feed involved. Pigs generally like wet feed, when pigs are given wet feed the feed should consist of three parts of water to one part of dry fed.
3. Floor Vs. Trough feeding:
Pigs some times are fed on floor instead of troughs. With the floor feeding cost of feeding equipments and the cleanliness factor gets reduced. Dry feeds alone can be used for floor feeding.
2
NUTRIENT REQUIREMENTS FOR SWINEAS PER BIS (BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARD)
Nutrient
Requirement
Pig starter
Grower Feed
Finisher/ Breeder Feed
Moisture (Max %)
Crude protein (Min %)
Crude fat (Min %)
Crude fibre (Max %)
Total ash (Max %)
Acid insoluble ash (Max %)
ME (Kcal/kg)
11.0
20.0
2.0
5.0
8.0
4.0
3360
11.0
18.0
2.0
6.0
8.0
4.0
3170
11.0
16.0
2.0
8.0
8.0
4.0
3170
WATER REQUIREMENTS OF PIGS
• If there is a loss of 10% of a body water, disorder will occur. If body water loss is 20% and more pig may die.
• The factors which affect the water intake are environmental temperature, feed protein content, mineral intake, activity level and production
• On average pigs consume 2-3 times water than its dry matter intake.
• Generally pigs require 5-10 liters of water per 45 kg body weight except in lactation, where the water requirement is 25 litres/day.
• Pigs can tolerate upto 1% salt in water.
FEEDING OF PIGLETS
• Piglets are allowed to suckle their mother for colostrum immediately after birth
• Piglets feed on the milk from the sow up to 1-2 weeks of age.
• Beyond two weeks additional feed in form of creep feed is essential.
o Creep feeding is necessary because the sows milk alone does not meet the nutrient requirement of the rapidly growing piglet.
o Moreover the large litter size also warrants creep feeding
3
CREEP RATION
➢ The practice of self-feeding of concentrates to young ones away from their mother is called as “Creep Feeding”.
➢ It is usually given in a separate enclosure which the sow cannot access.
➢ In pigs, it is given from second week of age.
➢ Creep feed should contain 20% CP and 3360 kcal/kg of ME.
➢ Major portion of creep feed should be of animal origin.
➢ The feed should contain appropriate quantity of vitamins and minerals.
➢ It should contain low crude fibre.
➢ Dry creep feed are called as pre-starter feed.
➢ Example of a creep feed is as follows
S. No.
Ingredients
Parts (%)
1.
Ground Yellow maize
40
2.
Skim milk
10
3.
Ground nut oil cake
10
4.
Sesame oil cake
10
5.
Wheat bran
10
6.
Molasses or jaggery
10
7.
Fish meal
6
8.
Brewers yeast
2
9.
Mineral mixture
2
• This concentrate mixture should be supplemented with vitamin mixture at the rate of 10 g/100 kg feed as a general guide.
PIGLET ANAEMIA / THUMPS
• Anaemia in piglets occurs due to iron deficiency.
• Iron deficiency develops rapidly in nursing pigs reared in confinement because:
1. Low body storage of iron in the newborn pig,
2. Low iron content of sow’s colostrums and milk,
3. No access to soil iron, and
4. The rapid growth rate of the nursing pig.
4
• Anemia in piglets is characterized by poor appetite and growth. Breathing becomes labored and spasmodic-hence the descriptive term is ‘thumps’
Prevention
➢ Inj. (i/m) of Iron Dextron (100 mg) on 4th and 14th day in piglets.
➢ Painting of sow udder with ferrous sulphate.
➢ Rearing of piglets on soil instead of concrete floor.
STARTER RATION
➢ It is fed when pig attains body weight of 12 -14 kg and is continued till they attain a body weight of 25 kg.
➢ It should contain 20% crude protein and 3360 kcal/kg of ME.
➢ It should have low fibre.
➢ It should be rich in vitamin and minerals.
➢ Example of starter ration is as follows
S. No.
Ingredients
Parts (%)
1.
Ground yellow maize
30
2.
Ground nut oil cake
28
3.
Wheat bran
30
4.
Fish meal
10
5.
Mineral mixture
2
• It is supplemented with 10 gm of Vitamin mixture per 100 kg of feed.
FEEDING OF GROWERS
➢ When a pig attains a body weight of 25 kg they can be turned from starter to grower ration and is continued till they attain a body weight of 55 kg.
➢ The grower ration should contain 18% CP and should contain 3170 kcal/kg ME.
➢ It should contain some animal protein and fibre.
➢ Example of grower ration is as follows
5
S. No.
Ingredients
Parts (%)
1.
Ground yellow maize
30
2.
Ground nut oil cake
20
3.
Wheat bran
40
4.
Fish meal
7.5
5.
Mineral mixture
2.5
• It is supplemented with 10 gm of Vitamin mixture per 100 kg of feed.
FEEDING FATTENNING ANIMALS
FINISHER RATION
➢ It is fed to pigs when they achieve 55 kg body weight and is fed until they attain marketing rate of about 90 kg.
➢ Finisher ration is also called as “Fattening Ration”.
➢ It can be fed upto 4 Kg per animal per day.
➢ This ration contains 16% CP and 3170 kcal/kg ME.
➢ Example of finisher ration is as follows
S. No.
Ingredients
Parts (%)
1.
Ground yellow maize
40
2.
Wheat bran
30
3.
Ground nut oil cake
12
4.
Sesame oil cake
10
5.
Fish meal
5.5
6.
Mineral mixture
2.5
7.
Vitamin mixture
10 g
FEEDING OF LACTATING AND PREGNANT SOWS
GESTATION RATION
➢ A special care should be given during gestation of sow.
➢ During first two-third period of gestation, a ration with 14% CP should be fed whereas during last third of gestation ration should contain 16% CP.
6
➢ The ration should have 3265 kcal/kg of ME.
➢ Pregnant sow are fed 3-4 kg feed per day per sow.
➢ An example of gestation ration is as follows
S. No.
Ingredients
Parts (%)
1.
Ground yellow maize
52
2.
Ground nut oil cake
20
3.
Molasses
5
4.
Wheat bran
15
5.
Fish meal
5
6.
Mineral mixture
2
7.
Salt
1
FEEDING LACTATING SOW
➢ The sow largely uses dietary nutrients for the synthesis of milk. If the dietary nutrients are not provided, the body will use tissue reserves in an attempt to meet milk production demands. When this occurs, it will result in a loss of body weight.
➢ First-parity animals normally consume less feed during lactation than older sows. Because of this, the diet of first parity sows should be formulated to contain a higher concentration of nutrients.
➢ The feeding practice for lactating sows is to feed a minimum amount of feed the first day after farrowing and then to increase that amount so that the sow is on full feed by day five of lactation.
➢ It is a common practice to feed lactating sows twice a day, but most sows cannot consume enough feed with this feeding practice hence the frequency of feeding can be increased.
➢ The method of feeding lactating sows is critical during the summer months when feed intake is particularly low. In summer the sow is fed during the cooler times of the day.
➢ The inclusion of fat in the sow’s lactation ration has been shown to increase milk-fat content.
➢ The dietary protein (amino acids) concentration provided to the sow during lactation is of extreme importance in meeting the needs for milk production. The ration should contain around 18% crude protein.
7
➢ The ration should have 3265kcal/kg of ME.
➢ When constipation is a problem, the addition of a fiber source (wheat bran, alfalfa meal) at a 5% level may be helpful. Fiber inclusion in the lactation ration will, however, lower the energy value of the diet.
➢ Within a few days of farrowing, the fiber should therefore be withdrawn from the diet and replaced with energy supplements.
➢ As during late gestation, adequate quantity of calcium and phosphorous should be provided ration.
➢ Feed consumption of lactating sow 6 -10 Kg depending on litter size.
FEEDING BREEDING BOARS
➢ The feed for young boar of less than 15 days age should contain 16% CP whereas for older boars CP % of feed should be 14%.
➢ The boar ration should contain 3265 kcal/kg of ME.
➢ Adult boar can be fed 3-4 Kg of feed per day.
➢ A ration similar to a growing ration can be prepared and fed.
PREPARATION OF FEEDS FOR SWINE
• Fine grinding of feeds for pig is not recommended because such feed sticks to the feeder and there is increased incidence of gastric ulcers.
• Coarse grinding of cereals and millets is profitable than to feed them as a whole.
• Pelleting of feed is profitable if a ration is high in crude fibre content.
• Soaking of small grains like sorghum 12 hours prior to feeding improves their utilization by animal.
• Cooking can also improve the utilization of starch especially when tubers like potato and legumes like soyabeans are used as feed.
8
EXAMPLE OF SWINE RATION
Ingredients(kg)
Starter
Grower
Finisher
Yellow Maize
41
60
40
Skimmed Milk
12


GNC
15
10
12
Til Cake
10
9
9
Fish Meal
6
7.5
5.5
Wheat Bran
10
10
30
Brewers Yeast
2


Oil
2
1
1
Mineral Mix
2
2.5
2.5
Vitamin Mix (g )
10
10
10