FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF
VARIOUS COSMETIC AND DENTAL
The term cosmetics have been derived from the term “COSMETIKOS” which means the
skill to decorate. Thus cosmetics is the art of decorating yourself to look
According to D & C Act:-
Cosmetics mean any articles meant to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled or sprayed on or
introduced into or otherwise applied to any part of the human body for cleansing,
beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering appearance and include any article
intended for use as a component of cosmetic. Soap is not covered under cosmetic
2) CLASSIFICATION OF COSMETICS:-
3) INGREDIENTS OF COSMETICS:-
2. Oils, Fats, Waxes
6. Perfumes And Colors
7. Herbal Or Plant Material
8. Functional Raw Materials
It is the main ingredient of cosmetics formulation. Thus stability and quality of final product is
dependent on the purity of water used so pure water should be used in manufacturing of
cosmetics. Pure water on large scale can be manufactured by any of the methods mentioned
Ion exchange system
2. OIL, FATS and WAXES:-
These are used in preparation of creams, lotions, brilliantine, hair oil, lipsticks etc. The source
of oil, fat & wax can be mineral source & animal source. The source and example is given
Source:-1) Mineral source
-paraffin and petroleum jelly
2) Animal source
-bees wax, Spermaceti
Name of oil
Use in cosmetics
Almond Creams (emollient)
Arachis Hair oil, Brilliantines
Castor Lip stick, hair oil cream ,lotion
Olive Bath oils ,creams lotions
Type of mineral oil Use in cosmetics product
Light liquid paraffin In bath oil, hair oil,lotions,creams,brilliantine
In bath oil, hair oil,lotions,creams,brilliantine
Heavy liquid paraffin
• waxes:- The commonly used waxes in preparation of cosmetics Include bees wax,
This is added to prevent drying out of cosmetics
(e.g. o/w creams)
Type of Humectant
1.Inorganic Calcium chloride (not used now due to compatibility problems)
Sodium lactate (used in sunscreen lotions)
Polyethylene glycol, Propylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, mannitol,
Surfactants lower one or more boundary tensions at interface in the system. one common
feature of surfactant is that they all are amphipathic molecules containing a hydrophobic part
& a hydrophilic part. Used in cosmetics to impart following functions:.
DETERGENCY, WETTING, FOAMING, EMULSIFICATION, SOLUBILIZATION
Surfactants on basis of their ionic behavior can be divided into following 4 types:-
Type of surfactant Examples
Fatty acid soaps, alkyl sulphates, alkyl sulphonates, polyethylene glycol
ester,alkyl ether sulphates taurines,sarcosinates etc.
Alkyl trimethyl ammonium salts, Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium salts alkyl
pyridinium salts, quaternised diamine salts.
Alkanolamides,alkyl polyglycol ether, thioethers,
3. Non ionic
alkyl polyethyleneimine amides.
4.Ampholytic Betains, alkylimidazolines, acyl peptides,etc.
Used to prevent spoilage which occurs due to
1) Oxidation of oils 2) Microbial growth
• Unused cosmetics are usually contaminated wit PSEUDOMONAS but used cosmetics
are contaminated with STAPHYLOCOCCI,FUNGI,YEAST
• Types of preservatives :-
1) Anti microbial agents:- e.g. .Benzoic acid, formaldehyde, cresol, phenol,
thiomersol,phenyl mercuric salts. Etc.
2) Antioxidants :- Gallic acid, methyl gallate,BHA,BHT,Tocopherol, citric
acid,Ethanolamine,lecithin,ascorbic acid, sodium sulphite,
3) Antioxidant synergists: – Enhance the efficacy of antioxidants. examples
include:-ascorbic acid, citric acid, phosphoric acid
4) UV absorbers:-These are mainly used in products which are vulnerable to
visible or UV light. By incorporating UV absorbers colorless containers can be
used if deterioration is due to UV light only.
The word perfume has been derived from “per” means through and “fumum” means smoke.
It suggests that early perfumes were pleasant smells obtained by burning wood
and grass etc.
Source of perfume Example
Musk ,civet, Ambergris, Castroreum etc.
Rose ,jasmine, lemon, lavender etc.
Aroma chemical Eugenol, Farnesal, Rose oxide, Citral ,Limonene
Floral base Rose base, Jasmine base
Citrus base(in colognes),spice base, oriental base,
fruity base ,etc
It defined as visual sensation caused by a definite wavelength by an object by one/more
phenomenon of emission, reflection, refraction, transmission.
Colors can be classified into three classes:-
a) Natural colors:- Plant source :- e.g. Saffron, turmeric
Animal source:-e.g. Cochineal (red)
b) Inorganic colors:- e.g. Iron oxides, chromium oxides, carbon black, titanium dioxide,
zinc oxide etc.
c) Coal tar colors:-Tartrazine, amaranth, Erythrosine, Indigocarmine. etc.
8.HERBAL OR PLANT MATERIAL:-
These herbal or plant materials are used in different cosmetics preparations.
NAME USE IN COSMETICS
Almond Facial and body scrubs
Azadiracta Tooth paste and skin care
Comfrey Creams and lotions
Tulsi Skin cream and lotions
Cucumber Masks, toner, cleanser
Henna Dyeing of hair
Jasmine Hair oil
Lemon Skin tonic, cleansers
Apricot Facial and body scrubs
9. FUNCTIONAL RAW MATERIALS:-
These agents contribute towards some functional property .
TYPE EXAMPLE & USE
Vit C (antioxidant in emulsion),vit A,
VITAMINS Vit E (skin beautification)
AV HILL MP TT
(all essential amino acids)
ANTI INFLAMMATORY Allantoin (hand cream & lotion) Cade oil(eczema&
SUNSCREEN PABA, Vitamin C, Quinine salts
AGENTS Coumarin derivatives
ANTIDANDRUFF Selenium, cadmium sulphide, ZPTO
COSMETICS FOR SKIN
1) To provide decoration
2) To supplement natural functions of skin
Type of cosmetics used for skin:-
1. Skin cream
3. Face powder & Compacts
4. Skin colorants
5. Body powder
6. Face pack & Masks
7. Bath Preparations (bath salt,oil,powder,foam)
8. Astringents &Skin tonics (antiperspirants, astringent lotion, preshave & after shave
1. CREAMS: – These are the solid or semisolid preparation which is either a o/w or w/o
TYPES OF CREAMS:
A. Cleansing cream
B. Massage creams
C. Night creams
D. Moisturizing creams
E. Foundation creams
F. Vanishing creams
G. All purpose creams
A) CLEANSING CREAM:- Cleansing cream is required for removal of facial make up, surface
grime, oil, water and oil soluble soil efficiently mainly from the face & throat.
Characteristic of a good cleansing cream:-
1) Be able to effectively remove oil soluble & water soluble soil, surface oil from skin.
2) Should be stable &have good appearance.
3) Should melt or soften on application to the skin
4) Should spread easily without too much of drag.
5) Its physical action on skin & pore openings should be that of flushing rather than
Type of cleansing cream:-
I.) Anhydrous type:- It contains mixture of hydrocarbon, oils and waxes. It also
contains cetyl alcohol, spermaceti, cocoa butter, fatty acid esters etc. Not
Mineral oil-80 gm, Petroleum jelly– 15gm
Ozokerite wax -5 gm Preservative and perfumes –q.s
Note :- Formation crusty surface is avoided by adding Ozokerite & petrolatum
(prevent bleeding of mineral oils.)
Opaque character obtained by adding Zno, mg.stearate, Tio2
II.) Emulsified type:- They can be either o/w or w/o type.
Oil phase…………………..Spread easily
Waxes……………………..Give appropriate thixotropy
Emollient material…………likes cetyl alcohol, spermaceti, lanolin
Water phase with preservative
(1) Cold Cream:- Cooling effect is produced due to slow evaporation of the water
contained in the formulation. These are w/o type.
(2) Beeswax Borax type:- These contain high percentage of mineral oil. These are o/w
type. This cream contains high amount of mineral oil for cleansing action. Basically
these are o/w type emulsion. After the cream is being rubbed into the skin sufficient
quantity of water evaporates to impart a phase inversion to the w/o type. The
solvent action of the oil as external phase imparts cleansing property. In this type of
cream borax reacts with free fatty acids present in the bees wax and produces soft
soap which acts as the emulsifying agent and emulsifies the oil phase .
A typical formulation:-
Bees wax -2 gm Borax-2 gm
Almond oil -50 gm Rose water 35.5 gm
Lanolin– 0.5gm preservative and perfume –q.s
B) NIGHT & MASSAGE CREAM:-
These are generally applied on the skin and left for several hours say overnight and assist
in the repair of skin which has been damaged by exposure to various elements or exposure to
detergent solution or soap. The mostly have a moisturizing & a nourishing effect of affected
skin. These also contain vitamins and hormones basing on the application. This cream give
better look to the skin and prevent dryness.
A typical formulation
• Mineral oil-38gm Borax 1gm
Petroleum jelly-8gm Water 35gm
White bees wax-15gm Perfume & preservative q.s
Paraffin wax – 1.0gm
C) VANISHING CREAM:-
These are named so as they seem to vanish when applied to the skin. High quantity of stearic
acid as oil phase used.This provides an oil phase which melts above body temp, and
crystsllises in a suitable form, so as to invisible in use and give a non greasy film.
• Main component is emollient esters ,stearic acids
• Part of stearic acid is saponified with an alkali & rest of stearic acid is emulsified this
soap in large quantity of water.
• The quality of cream depends on the amount of acid saponified & nature of alkali
• NaoH makes harder cream than koH.
• Borax makes cream very white but product has tendency to grain.
• Pearliness can be attained using liq.paraffin, cocoa butter, starch, castor oil, almond
• Ammonia solution has a tendency to discolor creams made with it after some time.
• Cetyl alcohol improves texture and stability at low temperature without affecting
A typical formulation
Stearic acid 15gm Glycerin 5gm
KOH 0.5 gm water 75.82 gm
NaOH 0.18 gm preservative &perfume q.s
Cetyl alcohol 0.50 gm
Propylene glycol 3.0gm
Stearic acid has whiteness like snow so some times the preparation is called as
D) FOUNDATION CREAM:-
• Applied to skin to provide a smooth emollient base or foundation for the application of
face powder & other make up preparations. They help the powder to adhere to skin.
They are almost o/w type.
A typical formulation
• Lanolin 2 gm Propylene glycol 8gm
• Cetyl alcohol 0.50 gm water 79.10 gm
• Stearic acid 10gm Perfume &preservative q.s
• KoH 0.40 gm
E) HAND & BODY CREAM:-
• The repeated or constant contact with soap and detergent damages & removes film of
sebum thus this cream is used to impart following functions to the skin.
• The function of these creams are
– Replace/reduce water loss.
– Provide oily film to protect the skin.
– Keep the skin soft, smooth but not greasy.
a) Liquid cream:-consistency is of liquid nature
b) Solid creams:- Consistency is higher
c) Nonaqueous type:-Not containing any aqueous medium.
A typical formulation
a.) Isopropyl myristate – 4 gm
Mineral oil — 2 gm
Stearic acid – 3.gm
Emulsifying wax – .275 gm
Lanolin – 2.5 gm
b.) Glycerin -3.0 gm
Triethanolamine – 1 gm
Water -84.225 gm
Perfume and Preservative -q.s
(F) ALL PURPOSE CREAMS:-
All purpose means it is suitable for hands, face and body. They are w/o types.
Formula:- Oil phase Water phase
Mineral oil 18% Water 61.3%
Lanolin 2% Glycerol 5%
Petroleum jelly 2% Magnesium sulphate 0.2%
Ozokerite 7 % Perfume, preservative q.s
Paraffin wax 3%
(I) Cleansing lotion
A typical formulation
Mineral oil 38%,
Bees wax 2%,
Triethanolamine stearate 8%,
Water to make 100%
Preservative & Perfumes –q.s
Note: – Triethanolamine discolors on standing so it should be made in situ using calculated
amount of stearic acid and Triethanolamine. O/W lotion have tendency to increase in viscosity
with ageing (this is prevented by using ethoxylated cholesterol)
(II) Sunscreen lotions:-
These lotions have property of protecting the skin from sun burning.
An ideal sunscreen agent should have following properties.
Absorb light over the range of 200-400 nm.
Be stable to heat, light & perspiration
Be nontoxic & nonirritant
Not be rapidly absorbed
Be readily soluble in suitable vehicles.
US dept of health has recommended following ingredients to be used as sunscreen
agents. They absorb U.V radiation.
MONOGLYCERYL PARA AMINO BENZOATE
And few others are PABA, cinnamic acid derivatives, coumarin derivatives, Quinine salts,
uric acid derivatives.
A typical formulation
Glyceryl p-amino benzoate 3.0 %
Glycerin 5.0 %
Alcohol 10 %
Methyl cellulose 0.5 %
Water to make 100 %
These are categorized as face powder, body powder, and Compacts.
The powders should have following properties:-
Must have good covering power so can hide skin blemishes.
Should adhere perfectly to the skin & not blow off easily.
Must have absorbent property.
Must have sufficient slip to enable the powder to spread on the skin by the puff .
The finish given to the skin must be preferably of a matt or peach like character.
The raw materials used to manufacture of various powders are classified with example as
RAW MATERIAL FOR POWDER
Covering prop Titanium dioxide,zno,kaolin,zn stearate
Adhesion prop Mg.stearate,talc,mg & ca salt of myristic acid
Slip & Softness Zn/mg undecanate,aluminium hydrosilicate
Absorbency prop Starch, colloidal kaolin,bentonite,pptd chalk
Peach like finish Rice starch,silica,powdered silk
Frosted look Guanine, bismuth oxychloride,mica,Zn,Al
Color & perfumes Iron oxides
Types of Face Powders:-
A. Loose face powder
B. Compact face powder
C. Talcum powder
D. Baby powder
A) LOOSE FACE POWDER :-
The essential feature of a good face powder includes Covering power, slip, Adhesiveness,
Absorbency, Bloom, Coloring, Perfuming.
b) Light type
c) Medium type
d) Heavy type
Type of face powder purpose & composition
LIGHT Dry skin, contains large amount of talc
MEDIUM Normal or moderately oily skins, lesser talc & zinc oxide
HEAVY Extremely oily skins ,low talc but higher amount of Zinc oxide
TYPICAL FORMULATION OF FACE POWDERS:-
LIGHT POWDER MEDIUM POWDER HEAVY POWDER
Talc ———63gm Talc———39.7gm Talc———20.0gm
Kaolin ——–20 gm Kaolin——-39.5 gm Kaolin(light)-20 0gm
Cal. carbonate(l) 5 gm Cal. carbonate(l) 5 gm . Cal. carbonate(l) 39 g
Zinc oxide —5.0gm Zinc oxide —7.0gm Zinc oxide —15.0gm
Zinc stearate-5.0gm Zinc stearate-7.0gm Mg.stearate—5.0gm
Mg.carbonate—1.0gm Mg.carbonate—1.0gm Color ——0.5gm
Color ——0.5gm Color ——0.2gm Perfume——0.5gm
B) COMPACT FACE POWDER:-
It is a dry powder which has been compressed into a cake. The pressure for compaction is
very important. The powder must come off easily when rubbed with puff.
Type of binder Examples
1) Dry binder Zn/Mg.stearate
2) Oil binder (water repellant ) Mineral oil, isopropyl myristate, Lanolin derivative
3) Water soluble binder PVP, CMC, Cellulose, Acacia, Tragacanth
5) Emulsion binder Triethanolamine stearate, Glycerol monostearate
(C) TALCUM POWDER:- It is used as an adsorbent for making the skin from the excess
moisture. Light magnesium carbonate added to mix perfume.
Formula:- Zinc oxide ………………………. .. 50
Zinc stearate ……………………… 50
Chlorhexidine diacetate ………3
Light magnesium carbonate.100
D) BODY POWDER:-
It consists of mainly talc, with small portion of a metallic stearate, precipitated chalk,
magnesium carbonate(light). Talcum/body powders containing antiseptic substances are also
used for prickly heat, and fungus infections. Boric acid act as antiseptic.
A typical formulation
Talc – 75 gm Aluminum stearate – 4 gm
Colloidal Kaolin –10 gm Boric acid – 0.3 gm
Colloidal silica— 5 gm Perfume — 0.7 gm
Magnesium Carbonate- 5 gm
3. SKIN COLORANTS:-
It includes a) Lipsticks
a) LIPSTICK:-These are basically dispersions of coloring matter in a base consisting of a
suitable blend of oils, fats, and waxes suitably perfumed and flavored molded in the form of a
Ideal character of lipstick includes:-
Should cover the lips adequately with some gloss and last for long time.
It should make the lips soft.
The film must adhere firmly to the lips without being brittle.& tachy.
Should have high retention of color intensity without any change in shade.
Should be completely free from grittiness & free from drying.
Nonirritating to the lips.
Desirable degree of plasticity & have a pleasant odor and flavor.
• Classification of raw materials:-
1) Wax mixtures (bees, candeilla, carnauba, ceresin, Ozokerite wax)
2) Oil mixtures (castor, paraffin, THFA, isopropyl myristate)
3) Bromo mixture
Types of lipsticks
1) Transparent lipstick
2) Liquid lipstick
3) Lip rouge
4) Lip jelly
5) Lip salve
6) Lip glosses
A typical formulation of lipstick.
Castor oil 54 gm
Lanolin (anhydrous) 11 gm
Candeilla wax 9 gm
Isopropyl myristate 8 gm
White beeswax 5 gm
Carnauba wax 3 gm
Ozokerite wax 3 gm
Eosin 2 gm
Lakes 5 gm
Rose flavor q.s
b) SKIN ROUGE: – These are the cosmetics preparations used to apply a color to the cheeks.
The color may vary from the palest of pinks to the deep blue reds .The tint or color may be
achieved using water insoluble colors such as iron oxides and certain organic pigments or by
using water soluble organic colors which actually stain the skin.
Wax based rouges (Stick rouge)
Emulsion cream rouges
Powder Rouges Stick rouge
Talc…………………………….40 Carnauba wax…………………3
Zinc oxide……………………..10 Candelilla………………………6
Magnesium carbonate……….20 Ozokerite………………………1.5
Pigment………………………..14 Bees wax………………………1.5
Lanolin…………………………30 Hexadecyl stearate……………10
Perfume………………………..2 Isopropyl myristate…………….8
Emulsion cream rouge (vanishing type) Liquid rouge
Stearic acid…………………….15 (A) Iso stearic acid…………….0.02
Potassium hydroxide………….0.5 Mineral oil………………….30
Sod. Hydroxide………………..0.18 Iso propyl myristate………..5
Glycerin………………………..8 Colloidal silica……………..1
Pigment, Perfume & (B) Water………………………..48.3
(4) ANTIPERSPIRANTS & DEODORANTS:-
Anti perspirants:- Aluminium chlorhydrate used which has antibacterial and astringent
action. Aluminium chloride and Zirconium compounds are also used as antiperspirants.
Deodorants:–11 ( Hexachlorophene)
– TMTD (Tetra methyl triuram disulphide)
– Neomycin ( Antibiotic)
– Ion-exchange resin used like Amberlite
– Metal chelates like 1,3 Diketones used which chelate copper,
aluminium, Mg compounds.
COSMETICS FOR HAIR:-
Includes following type of preparations:-
2. Hair tonics & Conditioners
3. Hair colorants and hair color remover
4. Hair grooming preparations
5. Depilatory & Epilatory
6. Shaving soaps & creams
7. Hair wave sets & lacquers ,rinses
Ideal characters of a shampoo:-
Should effectively and completely remove the dust, excessive sebum.
Should effectively wash hair.
Should produce a good amount of foam
The shampoo should be easily removed by rinsing with water.
Should leave the hair non dry ,soft, lustrous with good, manageability.
Should impart a pleasant fragrance to the hair,.
Should not make the hand rough and chapped.
Should not have any side effects or cause irritation to skin or eye.
Composition of shampoo:-
1) Principal surfactant (anionic type)
Non ionic surfactant has sufficient cleansing property but have low
foaming power. Cationic are toxic. So anionic are preferred.
2) Secondary surfactant (anionic or ampholytic detergent)
They modify detergent and surfactant properties of principal surfactant.
3) Antidandruff agents (selenium, cadmium sulfide, ZPTO)
4) Conditioning agent (lanolin, oil, herbal extract, egg, amino acids)
5) Pearlescent agents (substituted 4 methyl coumarins)
6) Sequestrants (EDTA)
Added because Ca, Mg salts are present in hard water. Soaps cause
dullness by deposition of Ca, Mg soaps on hair shaft. This prevented
7) Thickening agents (alginates, PVA, MC)
8) Colors, perfumes and preservatives
Types of shampoo:-
1) Liquid cream shampoo
2) Solid cream and gel shampoo
3) Powder shampoo
4) Antidandruff shampoo
5) Aerosol foam shampoo
Formulation of shampoo:-
Liquid Cream shampoo Solid cream and Gel Shampoo
SLS 30% SLS………………………20%
PEG 400 Distearate Coconut monoethanolamide….1%
Mag. Stearate Propylene glycol monostearate..2%
Dist. Water Stearic acid…………………….5%
Ninol AB 21 Sodium hydroxide……………0.75%
Oleyl alcohol Water, perfume, Colour…….100
PEG 400 distearate and Mg stearate
used to convert clear liquid shampoo
to liquid cream shampoo.
Ninol AB 21- Thickening agent
Oleyl alcohol- Conditioning agent
1) Powder shampoo 2) Antidandruff shampoo
Henna powder ………… 5 gm Selenium disulphide…… 2.5 gm
Borax …………………….15 gm Bentonite ………………… 5 gm
Sod. carbonate ………… 25 gm Sod. Lauryl Sulphates … 40 g
Pot. Carbonate ………….. 5 gm Water ………………… 52.5 gm
Soap powder…………….. 50 gm Perfume……………… q.s.
Perfume …………………. q.s.
Aerosol Shampoo:- SLS………………………………………….30%
Triethanolamine lauryl stearate…………..5%
Polyethylene glycol stearate………………3%
90 parts of above packed with 2 parts of propellant 12 and 8 parts of propellant 14.
2) CONDITIONERS:- These are the preparations used after shampooing to render the hair
more lustrous, easy to comb, and free from static electricity when dry. Conditioners are
usually based on cationic detergents and fatty materials like lanolin, or mineral oil.
3) HAIR COLORANTS:-These are used either to hide gray hair or to change the color of the hair
An ideal hair dye should have following properties:-
Should be nontoxic to the skin or hair, should not impair natural gloss and texture.
Should not be a dermatitic sensitizer.
The color imparted must be stable to air, light, water, shampoo.
Should be easy to apply.
Hair dyes are divided into
Example is Henna
Example:- Lead dyes, Bismuth dyes, Silver dyes, Copper, nickel, cobalt salts
Formula:- (Lead dyes)
3) Synthetic organic dyes
They are of two types.
a) Semipermanent dye. b) Permanent dyes
Thyoglycolic acid……50% Paraphenylene diamne dye
NH3 solution(PH 9.2)…100%
HAIR DYE REMOVER:-
Formula:- Formamidine sulfinic acid……………….1.5%
Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether………..5%
Water up to ……………………………….1oo
Formamidine sulfinic acid is acting as hair dye remover.
4) HAIR GROOMING AIDS :-These are important group of cosmetics which are used both by
men and women to keep their hair in order for good looking, &enhance overall appearance.
1. Brilliantines & Hair oils
2. Hair setting lotions
3. Hair creams
4. Hair lacquers or sprays
• These are the preparations that remove superfluous hair by chemical breakdown. This
removes hair at the neck of the hair follicle and thus has advantage over razor shaver
which removes hair on a level with the surface of epidermis.
• Desirable Characters of an ideal depilatory preparation are:-
Selective in action
Efficient and rapid action in few minutes.
Non toxic and non allergic to the skin.
Easy to apply
• INGREDIENTS :-
1. Inorganic sulphates (Sod,calcium,barium sulphide,Strontium sulphide)
2. Thioglycollates: – (Calcium.thioglycollate & Lithium thioglycollate)
3. Stannites: – sodium stannite
4. Enzymes:-Keratinase (3-4%)
5. Humectant: – Glycerol,Sorbitol ,Propylene glycol
Name of ingredient Amount
1.Strontium sulphide 20.0 gm
3.Methyl cellulose 3.0 gm
4.Glycerin 15.0 gm
5.Water 42.0 gm
7. Preservative q.s
Epilation is longer lasting or even can be of permanent nature. This is achieved by plucking
the hair out and removing the root either by tweezers, threading,or by waxing.
• it is a permanent or long lasting effect (done by plucking the hair out, removing the
• Camphor-impart cooling effect to reduce discomfort of hair pulling.
• Local Anaesthetics:- overcomes discomfort and pain
Rosin 70 gm
Bees wax 20 gm
Ozokerite 10 gm
7) SHAVING PREPARATIONS: – These are preparations used to carryout shaving.
a) Ued before shaving
b) Used after shaving
Preparations before shaving includes
1) Lather shaving creams
2) Brushless shaving cream
3) Shaving soaps (solid, cream)
4) Aerosol preparation
SOAP BAR SOAP CREAM
I Ingredients A amount I Ingredients A Amount
Stearic acid 49 gm A. A. 䦋
Coconut oil 1 13 gm 1. Stearic acid 30 gm
Caustic potash 22 gm 2. Coconut oil 10 gm
Caustic soda 12 gm 3. Palm kernel oil 05 gm
Water 1.25 gm B. B.
1. Pot. hydroxide
stStearate (50%) o.75 gm 07 gm
Sorbital liquid 1.25 gm 2. Sod. hydroxide 1.5 gm
Glycerol 0.75 gm 3. Water 36.5 gm
Perfume q.s 4. Perfume q.s
Preservative q.s 5. Preservative q.s
1) BRUSHLESS SHAVING CREAM –
Here Lathering with shaving brush is avoided.
Formulation of brushless shaving cream
1. Stearic acid 16 gm
2. Mineral oil 14 gm
3. Spermaceti 2 gm
4. Glycerin 6 gm
5. Dil .ammonia solution 2 gm
6. Water 6 gm
7. Perfume q.s
8. Preservative q.s
2) LATHER SHAVING CREAM:-
Lathering with shaving brush is required.
INGREDIENTS A AMOUNT (%)
Stearic acid 28
Coconut oil 12
Palm oil 5
Pot. hydroxide 6.5
Sod. hydroxide 1.5
Water to make 100
AFTER SHAVE PREPARATION:-
Main purpose of shave preparation is to confer a pleasant feeling of comfort and well being
after shaving. This is achieved by giving slight coolness, anaesthesia, tautness or emolliency to
skin. At the same time it should be aseptic also.
Formula:-( Antiseptic after shave lotion)
COSMETICS FOR NAILS:-
1. Nail polishes
2. Nail lacquers & removers
3. Nail bleaches & Stain removers
4. Cuticle remover & softener
5. Fingernail elongations
1 ) NAIL POLISHES:-
A distinction between nail polishes and lacquer is that in nail polish exert the abrasive
action. Due to friction it draw the blood to numerous capillaries of nail bed and increasing
blood supply, and exert stimulating effect to growth of nail. Examples are stannic oxide, talc,
precipitated chalk. Silica exert abrasive action.
Formula:- Stannic oxide………………………90%
Pigment & Perfume…………….. ..q.s
2) NAIL LACQUERS :-
• These are the preparations that cover the nail with a water and air impermeable layer
which normally remains for days.
• A good Nail lacquer should fulfill the following characters:-
1) Must be innocuous to the nail & the skin
2) Must be easy and inconvenient to apply
3) Product should be stable on storage
4) The product should produce a good &satisfactory film.
1) Film former:-Nitro cellulose, Cellulose nitrate (mostly used), Cellulose acetate,
cellulose acetobutyrate, Ethyl. Cellulose.
2) Resins :- Give film more body, gloss, depth, adhesion
Natural – Gum damar, Benzoic acid, Gum copal, Shellac
Synthetic – Sulphonamide –Formaldehyde Resins
3) Solvents:-Mix of solvent is preferred, Mixing middle b.p solvents like alcohols,
acetates,and aromatic solvents rate of evaporation can be retarded.
5) Plasticizers :- Dibutyl phthalate, Castor oil ,n-butyl stearate, castor oil
6) pearlescent material :-Guanine crystals
(R.I-1.8), mica flakes, Ti02, Platelets coated with bismuth oxychloride.
7) colors and perfumes
Formulation (Nail Lacquer)
Nitrocellulose 16 gm
Resin 9 gm
plasticizer 4.8 gm
Solvent 60.5 gm
Color 0.5 gm
b) LACQUER REMOVERS:-
These are also called as nail cleansers which is applied to remove nail lacquers.
FORMULATION OF LACQUER REMOVERS
Butyl acetate 15 gm
Ethylene glycol monoethyl ether 80 gm
Propylene glycol ricinoleate 05 gm
c) CUTICLE REMOVERS AND SOFTENERS:-
Cuticle preparations either soften or remove the cuticles.
COSMETICS FOR EYES:-
Includes following preparations
1. Eye shadow
3. Eyebrow pencil
4. Eye cream
5. Eye liners
1) EYE SHADOW:-
• Give a back ground of color to the eye
• Formulated as cream, liquid, powder or stick.
• Ultramarine(20 part)& Ti02 — (BLUE)
• Iron oxide(30 part) &Ti02 (5 part)– (BROWN)
petroleum jelly 47.5 gm
Liquid lanolin 4.5 gm
Bees wax 4.5 gm
Micro crystalline wax 8.5 gm
Isopropyl myristate 35 gm
2) EYE LINER:-
1) Pencil type
2) Liquid type (suspension in a base containing film forming material)
3) Cake eye liners
Formulation of Cake type eyeliner
Zn Stearate 12%
Ppted Caco3 7%
Talc to make 100 %
3) EYE BROW PENCIL:-
• Contain high proportion of wax to increase M.P so that these can be moulded into
Bees wax 25%
Butyl stearate 8%
Castor oil 25%
Mineral oil 15%
• Black pigmented preparation for applying to eye lashes or eye brows ,it darkens the
eye lashes & gives an illusion of their density and length.
• Type:- Cake , Cream , Liquid
Carbon black 55 %
Coconut oil sodium soap 25%
Palm oil –sodium soap 22.5%
7) QUALITY CONTROL OF COSMETICS :-
We all know that “Price of a product is quickly forgotten but the quality is remembered” so
quality control plays a vital role regarding monitoring different parameters that may affect
quality &also helps in producing quality product every time.
1) RAW MATERIAL CONTROL
2) INTERMEDIATE PRODUCT CONTROL
3) FINISHED PRODUCT CONTROL
4) PACKAGING MATERIAL CONTROL
1) Q.C OF RAW MATERIAL:-
• Done by determination of Bioburden
The bacterias that are monitored in raw materials include:-
• Pseudomonas aeruginosa
• Staphylococcus aureus
2) Q.C OF INTERMEDIATES AND BULK FINISHED PRODUCT:-
Basing on the type of product few typical processing parameters are continuously to
ensure quality final product. few of them have been enlisted here.
a) CREAMS & LOTIONS:-
perfume addition temp
addition of phases
Temp of filling
rate of cooling
b) FACE POWDER
Uniformity of mixing
Compression pressure (compacts)
Breaking point test
-Foam & foam stability
-Detergency & coloring action
e) NAIL LACQUER:-
Color match, Drying rate,
Non volatile content,
Gloss, Hardness, abrasion resistance, adhesion etc.
Sampling size for final Q.C:-
No of packaging No of packing selected
Up to 3 Each
8) COSMOCEUTICALS: – These are cosmetics with therapeutic & disease fighting property
The following substances are now recognized having cosmoceutical potentials
1) Polysacharides :-Fom Tamarind extract and skin beneficial acids from Coriander
extract provide moisture-lipid balance preventing dryness and itching 2
2) Wheat Germ Oil guard skin against free radical damage.
3) Moringa Extract protects your skin against dust and harmful pollutants.
4) Galanga Oil * protects skin from harmful UV rays and fights pimple in acne prone skin.
Skin beneficial fatty acids from Coriander boost the deposition of skin proteins,
enhancing tissue repair
5) Cococin provides wholesome freshness and nourishment of natural tender coconut
water. Natural growth promoters like kinetin and amino acids in Cococin® impart
natural conditioning, suppleness and glow to the skin.
6) Ubiquinone(CO.Q.10) rejuvenates and increases the oxygen uptake into the cells.
7) Tetrahydrocurcuminoids, patented molecule from turmeric in combination with
potent antioxidants – Alpha lipolic acid and Ubiquinone reduces fine lines, wrinkles,
crow’s feet, minimizes the UV induced signs of photo aging and pigmentation, leaving
behind blemish-free, youthful skin.
8) Isoflavons from Soy impart luster and brightness to the skin by improving skin
thickness, skin blood circulation, increased desquamation resulting in excellent surface
texture and softness.
9) Tetrahydropiperine as Cosmoperine from Pepper improves the dermal penetration of
Type of cosmetic Preparation Suspected agent to cause harm
CREAMS Mercurial & Salicylic acid
DEODORANT Phenolic antimicrobials, Aluminium.chloride
DEPILATORIES Sulphides of alkali (R.A)
HAIR DYE Ammonia solution
COLD WAVE LOTIONS Thioglycollates
LIPSTICK Bromofluorescein dye (cause Cheilitis)
HAIR & BATH Prep Agent which cause eye irritation
4) TEN SYNTHETIC COSMETIC INGREDIENTS TO AVOID:-
Organic consumers association has given the following list of chemicals that are to
be avoided in preparation of cosmetics.
1. Imidazolidinyl Urea and Diazolidinyl Urea
2. Methyl and Propyl and Butyl and Ethyl Paraben
4. Propylene Glycol
5. PVP/VA Copolymer
6. Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
7. Stearalkonium Chloride
8. Synthetic Colors
Example: FD&C Red No. 6 / D&C Green No. 6
9. Synthetic Fragrances
Hair Growth-accelerating preparation containing chlorogenic acid or its isomer for
treating androgenic alopecia and its formulation.
Cosmetic composition contain in caffeine, acetic acid and sodium hyaluronate for
LIST OF CONTENTS
2) The teeth and common problem
3) Causes of oral health problems
5) Formulation of dentifrices
6) Type of dentifrices
1. Tooth pastes
2. Tooth powders
3. Solid blocks
4. Liquid preparations
5. Mouth wash
7) Topical anesthetics
8) Tartar reducing product
9) Mechanical method for plaque control
11) Dental care product
12) Newer approaches
Dentifrice a preparation for cleansing and polishing the teeth; it may contain a therapeutic
agent, such as fluoride, to inhibit dental caries.
A substance, such as a paste or powder, for cleaning the teeth.
Etymology: L, dens + fricare, to rub
a pharmaceutic compound used with a toothbrush for cleaning and polishing the teeth. It
typically contains a mild abrasive, detergent, flavoring agent, fluoride, and binder. Other
common ingredients are deodorants, humectants, desensitizers, and various medications to
prevent dental caries. Also called toothpaste.
A pharmaceutical compound used in conjunction with the toothbrush to clean and polish the
teeth. Contains a mild abrasive, a detergent, a flavoring agent, a binder, and occasionally
deodorants and various medicaments designed as caries preventives (e.g., antiseptics).
Two type of Dentifrice
1. Simple cleansing dentifrices
2. Therapeutics dentifrices: Therapeutic dentifrices may contain the bactericidal,
bacteriostatic, enzyme inhibiting or acid neutralizing qualities of the drugs or chemicals.
The teeth and common problem
1. Bad Breath
If you suffer from bad breath, you are not alone. Bad breath, also called halitosis, can be
downright embarrassing. According to dental studies, about 85% of people with persistent
bad breath have a dental condition that is to blame. Gum disease, cavities, oral cancer, dry
mouth and bacteria on the tongue are some of the dental problems that can cause bad
breath. Using mouthwash to cover up bad breath when a dental problem is present will only
mask the odor and not cure it. If you suffer from chronic bad breath, visit your dentist to rule
out any of these problems.
2. Tooth Decay
Did you know tooth decay, also known as cavities, is the second most prevalent disease in the
United States (the common cold is first). Tooth decay occurs when plague, the sticky
substance that forms on teeth, combines with the sugars and / or starches of the food we eat.
This combination produces acids that attack tooth enamel. The best way to prevent tooth
decay is by brushing twice a day, flossing daily and going to your regular dental check ups.
Eating healthy foods and avoiding snacks and drinks that are high in sugar are also ways to
3. Gum (Periodontal) Disease
Studies have shown that periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is linked to heart
attacks and strokes. Gum disease is an infection in the gums surrounding the teeth. Gum
disease is also one of the main causes of tooth loss among adults. There are two major stages
of gum disease: gingivitis and periodontitis. Regular dental check ups along with brushing at
least twice a day and flossing daily play an important role in preventing gum disease.
4. Oral Cancer
Oral cancer is a serious and deadly disease that affects millions of people. In fact, the Oral
Cancer Foundation estimates that someone in the United States dies every hour of every day
from oral cancer. Over 300,000 new cases of oral cancer are diagnosed every year, worldwide.
This serious dental disease, which pertains to the mouth, lips or throat, is often highly curable
if diagnosed and treated in the early stages.
5. Mouth Sores
There are several different types of mouth sores and they can be pesky and bothersome.
Unless a mouth sore lasts more than two weeks, it is usually nothing to worry about and will
disappear on its own. Common mouth sores are canker sores, fever blisters, cold sores, ulcers
6. Tooth Erosion
Tooth erosion is the loss of tooth structure and is caused by acid attacking the enamel. Tooth
erosion signs and symptoms can range from sensitivity to more severe problems such as
cracking. Tooth erosion is more common than people might think, but it can also be easily
7. Tooth Sensitivity
Tooth sensitivity is a common problem that affects millions of people. Basically, tooth
sensitivity means experiencing pain or discomfort to your teeth from sweets, cold air, hot
drinks, cold drinks or ice cream. Some people with sensitive teeth even experience discomfort
from brushing and flossing. The good news is that sensitive teeth can be treated.
8. Toothaches and Dental Emergencies
I can’t think of much worse than suffering from a toothache. While many toothaches and
dental emergencies can be easily avoided just by regular visits to the dentist, we all know that
accidents can and do happen. Having a dental emergency can be very painful and scary.
Fortunately, you can do several things until you are able to see your dentist.
9. Unattractive Smile
While an unattractive smile is not technically a “dental problem,” it is considered a dental
problem by people who are unhappy with their smile and it’s also a major reason that many
patients seek dental treatment. An unattractive smile can really lower a person’s self-esteem.
Luckily, with today’s technologies and developments, anyone can have a beautiful smile.
Whether it’s teeth whitening, dental implants, orthodontics or other cosmetic dental work,
chances are that your dentist can give you the smile of your dreams.
Causes of oral health problems
The pellicle is rapidly formed on all freshly cleaned tooth surfaces by the deposition and
absorption of some salivary proteins. It is less than 0.1 mm thick and is invisible to the naked
Following the deposition of pellicle on a freshly cleaned tooth surface, plaque forms rapidly.
Plaque is an invisible sticky film of bacteria, salivary proteins, and polysaccharides that
accumulates on everyone’s teeth. It is not washed away by the saliva, and the composition of
bacteria depends upon the host, the site in the mouth and the age of the plaque layer. In the
event of poor oral hygiene, plaque ages and there is a shift in bacterial population to more
harmful organisms as the plaque age.
3)Dental calculus (tartar)
Dental plaque may itself become mineralized and this hard deposit is called calculus. It
accumulates on the tooth surface mainly at the gingival margin opposite the salivary ducts. It
is a hard mineral deposit, containing predominantly calcium and phosphate, very tightly
bound to the tooth surface. Once it has formed, it is virtually impossible to remove it except
by a dental hygienist.
CLASSIFICATION OF DENTAL PRODUCTS
Classification depending on Dental Problems.
I. Products for carries control.
a. Systemic fluoride
b. Topical fluoride
II. Products for plaque control.
a. Chemical agents
ii. Mouth washes
b. Mechanical products
i. Tooth brushes
ii. Dental floss
iii. Other aids to plaque removal.
III. Products for tooth surface hypersensitivity.
IV. Topical anesthetic.
TOOTHPASTE INGREDIENTS AND MANUFACTURE
Requirements of a toothpaste/dentifrice
The major requirements of oral preparations, especially toothpastes, have been summarized
on many occasions in the past. For a toothpaste, these requirements were:
1. When used properly, with an efficient toothbrush, it should clean the teeth adequately,
that is, remove food debris, plaque and stains.
2. It should leave the mouth with a fresh, clean sensation.
3. Its cost should be such as to encourage regular and frequent use by all.
4. It should be harmless, pleasant and convenient to use. (It should conform to the EC
Cosmetics Directive in that it is ‘not liable to cause damage to human health when applied
under normal usage conditions’.)
5. It should be capable of being packed economically and should be stable in storage during its
6. It should conform to accepted standards in terms of its abrasivity to enamel and dentine.
7. Claims should be substantiated by properly conducted clinical trials.
These requirements remain valid today, with perhaps only the priority and emphasis placed
on any individual point being changed.
To achieve this it is necessary to have a high solid suspension in a stable viscous form and
therefore gelling agents or thickening polymers have to be incorporated.
To prevent it from drying out it also becomes necessary to add humectants to the system.
Finally, colours (if desired), and preservatives (if necessary), are also added, creating a
complex matrix of ingredients which can be classified as a ‘simple’ cosmetic toothpaste,
i.e. 1. Cleaning and polishing agents (abrasives).
2. Surfactant (cleaning and foaming).
4. Binding (gelling) agents.
6. Flavouring agents.
7. Minor ingredients (colours, whitening agents, preservatives).
In such a complex system many interactions can take place depending upon internal and
external factors. Even the ‘simple’ formulations require extensive stability testing, over a
range of temperatures and time, in order to be confident that the product quality does
not change upon storage. Only in this way can the manufacturer have a high degree of
confidence that the product seen by the consumer is of premium quality.
‘A dentifrice should be no more abrasive than is necessary to keep the teeth clean – that is
free of accessible plaque, debris and superficial stain’. Thus, considerable performance testing
on the final formulation is necessary.
Ingredients used in toothpastes
All ingredients generally have specifications approved for use in foodstuffs or are
special grades available for dental preparations, especially abrasives.
1. Cleaning and polishing agents (abrasives)
Clearly the main purpose of the cleaning and polishing agent is to remove any adherent layer
on the teeth, and the materials normally considered are given below.
(a) Dental grade silicas (SiO2)n.
In a relatively short period of time silica has generally become the abrasive of choice
because it offers great flexibility to the formulator.
It can be produced to a high state of purity giving excellent compatibility with therapeutic
additives and flavours.
Varying the particle size can alter the finished product abrasivity.
Clear gels can be formulated by carefully matching the refractive indices of silica used with
the liquid phase of the toothpaste.
Silica can also give additional thickening properties to the dental cream if extremely fine
particle sizes are used (silica thickeners).
When used in toothpastes, silica is generally incorporated at levels between 10 and 30%.
(b) Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) CaHPO4-2H2O.
DCPD is one of the most commonly used dental cream abrasives, perhaps because it gives
good flavour stability.
It is normally white in colour and gives toothpaste which generally does not require
additional whitening agents.
The main drawback is that it is only fully compatible with sodium monofluorophosphate as
the fluoride source because of the presence of free calcium ions. Formulating with other
therapeutic fluoride sources does not appear to have been successful.
The abrasive is usually formulated at levels between 40% and 50% to give relatively dense
(c) Calcium carbonate CaCO3.
Calcium carbonate is probably one of the most commonly used dental cream abrasives.
Precipitated calcium carbonate (chalk) is available with a white or off-white colour and
both particle size and crystalline form can be varied, depending upon its conditions of
As a result of its structure and calcium content, precipitated calcium carbonate is
incompatible with sodium fluoride, but is stable with the less reactive sodium
Calcium carbonate is also used at levels between 30% and 50% to give a relatively dense
(d) Sodium bicarbonate (or baking soda NaHCO3).
Sodium bicarbonate has a unique ‘salty’ mouth-feel that tends to polarize consumers,
many finding it attractive possibly due to its heritage as a cleaner/deodorizer.
It is a very mild abrasive, usually used at a 5-30% level, in combination with other
abrasives such as silica or calcium carbonate to achieve the required cleaning action.
(e) Hydrated alumina Al2O3 • 3H2O or Al(OH)3.
Hydrated alumina is relatively inert, cost-effective, and available as a white amorphous
It has good compatibility with sodium monofluorophosphate and other ingredients
added to give a therapeutic benefit.
The abrasive is usually formulated at levels between 40% and 50% to give a relatively
(f) Other abrasives.
Insoluble sodium metaphosphate (IMP) (NaPO3)x, is available as a free-flowing white
powder, with moderate abrasivity and good compatibility with flavour oils, sodium
monofluorophosphate and ionic fluoride sources (stannous and sodium fluorides).
it is now only used in extremely limited amounts.
Calcium pyrophosphate (CPP), Ca2P2O7, was the original abrasive purposely
developed for its compatibility with stannous fluoride to give the first commercially
available therapeutic dentifrice containing fluoride.
Surfactants are used in the toothpaste to aid in the penetration of the surface film on
the tooth by lowering the surface tension.
They also provide the secondary benefits of providing foam to suspend and remove
the debris, and the subjective perception of toothpaste performance.
They often have better foaming properties, and are more compatible with other
ingredients since their pH range is essentially neutral.
They are also available with a higher degree of purity that can eliminate some of the
bitter flavour components that affect taste.
In general, surfactants are used at a concentration of around 1-2% by weight in the
(a) Sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)
This has been the main surfactant of choice, used in nearly all toothpaste brands.
However, while alternative surfactants have been considered, and will continue
to be looked at and developed, none is in widespread use since all have some
disadvantages compared to SLS.
Humectants are used to prevent the paste from drying out and hardening to an
At the same time they give shine and some plasticity to the paste.
Generally only two major humectants are considered for use in toothpaste, often in
combination with small amounts of additional minor humectants.
(a) Glycerin, CH2OHCHOHCH2OH.
Glycerin is still the humectant used in greatest bulk quantity in toothpaste. It is one of
the best humectants, producing a shiny, glossy product.
It is stable, non-toxic, available from both synthetic and natural sources, and provides
a useful sweetening function to the paste.
(b) Sorbitol, CH2OH(CHOH)4CH2OH.
Sorbitol syrup (approximately 70%) is also extensively used throughout the industry
and is sometimes considered superior to glycerin depending upon the formulation.
It also imparts sweetness, and is a stable humectant.
(c) Propylene Glycol, CH3CHOHCH2OH and Polyethylene Glycol, CH2OH(CHOH)nCH2OH.
Propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol are not normally used as the sole humectant
in a paste since they are more expensive and, in the case of propylene glycol, can
impart a slightly bitter taste.
They are more generally used in relatively small amounts in combination with either
glycerin or sorbitol.
The amount of humectant in any formula obviously has to be adjusted depending
upon the other constituents of the formula (especially abrasive nature), but generally
the total humectant loading is in the range 10-30% by weight.
(d) Xylitol (CH2OH(CHOH)3CH2OH).
Xylitol is a polyol equivalent of sorbitol, but with a five-carbon chain instead of six.
Like sorbitol it is a naturally occurring material with a relative sweetness equal to
Currently its high cost and limited availability restrict its use.
4. Gelling agents
Gelling or binding agents are hydrophilic (water-loving) colloids which disperse and
swell in the water phase of the toothpaste and are necessary to maintain the
integral stability of the paste and prevent separation into component phases.
They are probably the most widely variable components of toothpaste and the
choice of gelling agent can greatly influence the dispersibility of the paste in the
mouth, the generation of foam and, above all, the release of the flavor
Some formulations have combinations of gelling agents in order to ahieve the desired
(a) Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose CMC.
Carboxymethyl cellulose is one of the preferred gelling agents for use in toothpaste.
It can be manufactured to a high state of purity, and tailor-made for an individual
requirement by varying the degree of substitution on the cellulose chain.
This can give flexibility in terms of solubility, elasticity and some increased stability in
the presence of electrolytes.
It is a purified colloid, consisting of a mixture of sulfated polysaccharides and, as with
all natural products, it can be of variable quality, which could cause a problem for any
Therefore, it is standardized either by repeated blending, or dilution with variable
amounts of inert material.
Some flexibility in the gelling properties of carrageenan can be achieved by controlling
the cations present by ion exchange.
(c) Miscellaneous gelling agents
Xanthan – This is a polysaccharide produced by fermentation technology. It offers excellent
properties for use in toothpaste since it gives a highly structured gel, relatively easily broken
down when sheared, but which recovers rapidly. It is relatively insensitive to electrolytes and
heat, but unfortunately it is generally incompatible with cellulosic materials because of
contaminating enzymes that degrade cellulose.
Hydroxy ethyl cellulose HEC – This is occasionally used as an alternative to carboxymethyl
cellulose (CMC), especially when a greater electrolyte tolerance is required.
Synthetic polymers – Cross linked acrylic acid polymers have become more intensively used in
the past decade because of their useful thickening and suspending properties combined with
their inertness and their stability to heat and ageing.
Clays – Colloidal clays, either natural processed bentonites or synthetic clays,have been used
as binding agents because of their thixotropic properties. Depending upon the rest of the
formula components (e.g. abrasive, amount of free water), the level of gelling agent added to
a paste can vary from 0.5% to 2.0% by weight.
5. Sweetening agents
These are important for product acceptance, since the final product must be neither
too sweet nor too bitter.
These ingredients must always be considered in partnership with the flavour because
of their combined impact.
(a) Sodium saccharin.
This is the sweetening agent in widest commercial use, and is generally used at a level
between 0.05% and 0.5% by weight.
Flavours are probably the most crucial part of toothpaste because of consumer
The flavour is a blend of many suitable oils, with peppermint and spearmint being the
major base components. These are nearly always fortified with other components
such as thymol, anethole, menthol (to give a pleasant cooling effect), eugenol (clove
oil), cinnamon, eucalyptol, aniseed, and wintergreen (to give a medicinal effect).
In addition, because the flavour is a mixture of sparingly soluble organic oils, its
interactions with the other dentifrice components are often unpredictable and
Taste and stability can be influenced greatly by both the other components of the
dental cream, e.g. free water content, or absorption by the abrasive (perhaps to the
surface), and also by the physical properties of the dental cream, e.g. pH, viscosity etc.,
Depending upon the formulation, e.g. the abrasive nature and level, the gelling agent
used and the presence of therapeutic ingredients which may impact taste perception,
the flavour level may vary from around 0.5% to 1.5% by weight.
7. Minor ingredients
(a) Titanium Dioxide TiO2- Titanium dioxide may be added to give additional whiteness and
brilliance to the paste.
(b) Colours. Colours can be an integral part of the aspect of any toothpaste that may influence
consumer preference and purchase intent. The EEC Cosmetics Directive (Annex IV) lists the
permitted colours and only a small amount is necessary to create a large impact, <0.01% by
(c) pH regulators. Occasionally buffering systems need to be added to the dental cream to
adjust the pH of the final finished product.
(d) Sparkles. A recent introduction in the marketplace is the addition of small reflective mica
particles to coloured transparent gel products. This gives toothpaste the appearance of
containing ‘sparkles’ and is especially aimed at younger children.
8. Fluoride and other ‘active’ ingredients
The earliest fluoride dentifrices contained sodium fluoride.
However, the fluoride was biologically unavailable because the calcium in the
dentifrice abrasive bound the fluoride and thus inactivated it.
Although a number of dentifrices containing fluoride are on the market, not all provide
available fluoride because the abrasive systems that some dentifrices contain
inactivate the fluoride.
Therefore, the product may contain as much fluoride as any other dentifrice but it is
Also, if the product has a short shelf life, it will be ineffective if poor marketing gets it
to the consumer too late.
For these reasons, only dentifrices approved by the Council on Scientific Affairs of the
Various topical fluoride preparations are available as given in the table.
Form of fluoride Preparations Concentration of fluoride
Topical solution 1.23 % in 1 % phosphoric acid
Acidulated phosphate Topical gel 1.23 % in 1 % phosphoric acid
fluoride Mouth rinse 0.02-0.04 %
Paste 1.2 %
Dentifrices 1.6 %
Mouth rinse 2.5 %
Topical solution 2%
Sodium fluoride Mouth rinse 2.5 %
Dentifrice 0.2 % (weekly)
Sodium 0.76 – 0.8 %
Topical solution 8%
Mouth rinse 0.1 %
Stannous fluoride Paste 8%
Gel 0.4 %
Dentifrices 0.4 %
Currently accepted dentifrices contain sodium monofluorophosphate,sodium fluoride, or, less
frequently,stannous fluoride, all of which reduce caries by approximately
25% when used daily.
The composition of some popular tooth pastes is given in table.
Brand Fluoride Abrasive Sweetener
10 % Hydrated
silica xerogel 1.5 %
Aim 0.8 % Na.MFP 67 % sorbitol
19 % Hydrated SLS
Aim extra 1.2 % Na.MFP
12.6 % calcium
Aqua fresh 0.76 % Na.MFP carbonate 52.8 % sorbitol 1.15 % SLS
12 % silica
48.76 % dicalcium 1.2 %
Colgate 0.76 % Na.MFP 22 % glycerin
Dentifrices stained teeth, particularly in pits and fissures.
This stain is related to the tin in this compound, which adheres to plaque.
The significance of this staining and its esthetic problems have resulted in a decreased
usage in dentifrices.
Stannous fluoride dentifrices are marketed in a plastic container because a reaction of
stannous ions at an acid pH occurs when conventional soft metal tubes are used.
Dentifrices containing stannous fluoride as an active ingredient are no longer widely
marketed; however, these formulations were the first to be evaluated for caries-
Effectiveness in caries reduction varied from 23 to 34%.
Amine fluorides also have strong plaque-reducing properties.
However, although the amine fluorides may be more effective for caries reduction
than other forms of fluoride, the FDA has not allowed these products to be extensively
tested in this country.
Recent studies of sodium fluoride dentifrices formulated to ensure ready availability of
fluoride ions have shown anticaries benefits similar to those obtained in clinical caries
trials with dentifrices containing stannous fluoride and sodium monofluorophosphate.
Clinical caries trials conducted under well controlled, daily supervised brushing
conditions have reported reductions in dental caries of approximately 25–48%.
A number of clinical studies have been conducted with dentifrices containing 0.76%
The data from these controlled clinical studies of sodium MFP dentifrices have
indicated reductions in dental caries ranging from approximately 17–42%.
Therapeutic effects of fluoride
M/A: fluoride ion can replace the hydroxyl ion in hydroxyapatite the major crystalline
structure of enamel.
The substituted crystals called fluorapatite is more resistant to acid, such as those
produced by plaque bacteria.
As fluoride is also an antienzyme. It may inhibit enzymatic acid production by plaque
Dental plaque control
Mainly stannous fluoride is used for this purpose.
M/A: related to an alteration of bacterial aggregation and metabolism.
1. Pit-and-fissure caries develop initially in the fissures of the teeth, but can spread into
2. Smooth-surface caries are most common on interdental surfaces, but can occur on
any smooth surface of the tooth
3. Root caries attack the cementum and dentine, which becomes exposed as gums
Sources of fluoride
Other ingested source
Fluoride effect on remineralization and demineralization of ename
Reduce demineralization Inhibit acid generation
from plaque bacteria4
MECHANICAL PRODUCTS FOR PLAQUE CONTROL
The toothbrush is the primary dental hygiene product you need to take care of your teeth.
First, the regular toothbrush alone provides a plethora of options. Toothbrushes come in
various sizes and styles. Various brushes differ from the handle to the bristles. That’s why
buying a toothbrush can be a confusing task.
In choosing a brush, most dentists recommend soft-bristled brushes more because these can
best remove plaque and traces of food that gets stuck in the teeth. You should also choose a
brush that does not have a big head. Small-headed brushes can reach the back areas of the
mouth for thorough and complete mouth cleaning. You can also choose from squared heads
or tapered ones.
As for the handle, you should go for brushes that provide good grip. The shape of the handles
themselves differs a lot. But the most important part of the brush is the bristles. There are
many forms of bristles, such as rippled, flat, trimmed, or domed ones. All these different types
of bristles provide specific benefits that may help meet your needs.
Aside from regular brushes, however, you can also use power brushes, which is very popular
among younger users. These powered brushes help clean the teeth better than children
Another important choice you have to make is what toothpaste to use to go with that perfect
brush. The toothpaste aisle in the supermarket is highly congested, and the different brands
and kinds often differ in ways that are vague to consumers. That’s why it is even harder to
choose toothpaste than a toothbrush. The trick, however, is to follow the fluoride arrow. Look
for toothpaste that contains fluoride, and the brand usually doesn’t matter much. Fluoride is
an essential ingredient that can provide strengthening for your teeth. Fluoride works by
keeping cavities away and also by polishing tooth enamel.
Another clue to look for is the seal of approval by the American Dental Association, which will
help lead you to safe and effective products that have passed clinical scrutiny. You can also
consider your specific tastes, such as desensitizing toothpaste for sensitive teeth, whitening
toothpaste for yellowing teeth, and tar-tar control toothpaste for those dealing with tar-tar
3. Dental Floss
Another important dental hygiene product is dental floss, which is often neglected by a lot of
people. Flossing should be done at least once daily, and benefits are far ranging. Flossing can
help clean teeth and in between teeth to make sure no food debris are left. It can help you
easily get rid of the food stuck irritatingly between your teeth, which can lead to tooth decay,
gum disease, and accumulation of bacteria in the long run. Also, bacteria can lead to bad
breath, so dental floss can help keep bad breath away.
4. Tongue Scraper
Another less popular product is the tongue scraper or tongue cleaner, which cleans the
surface of the tongue to remove bacteria, food debris, fungi, and dead cells. The tongue is
vulnerable to bacteria and fungi that can cause bad breath, oral problems and even medical
conditions. Tongue cleaners come in a general form, but one thing to note is that it should be
used before brushing your teeth, since brushing might cause the stuff on your tongue to
recede into the throat.
Tartar (Calculus)-Reducing Products
A number of products, both dentifrices and mouthrinses,are available for reduction of
supragingival calculus (tartar) in dental patients. Calculus reduction has been shown with
dentifrices containing pyrophosphates, zinc salts, triclosan, and papain.
The incidence of calculus formation ranges from 45 to 66%, with some variation between
males and females and different age groups. Although supragingival calculus is not a major
etiologic agent for gingivitis or periodontitis, its surface porosity provides an environment
for plaque formation.
In addition, it serves as a plaque-delivery system by holding plaque against gingival tissues.
Although plaque formation has been well correlated with gingivitis and periodontitis, a
similar correlation for calculus has not been reported.
For this reason, the ADA does not offer an acceptance program for products that reduce
calculus formation because this is considered to be a cosmetic issue, rather than an issue
The mechanism of action of the calculus-reducing chemicals is related to the latter’s ability
to inhibit crystal growth and interrupt the transformation of calcium phosphate (found in
foods and saliva) into dental calculus.
This effect may occur as follows:
1. The agents complex on the tooth surface to block receptor sites for calcium phosphate that
precipitates from saliva and chemically absorbs to initiate calculus formation.
2. This same receptor site blockage also occurs in the calculus matrix as it begins to form.
3. The pyrophosphate complexes combine with free calcium in saliva to inhibit the
attachment at the tooth surface (probably a secondary mechanism).
TYPE OF DENTIFRICES
(A) Pastes form – Tooth paste
(B) Powder form – Tooth powder
(C) Solid blocks
(A) TOOTH PASTES
Tooth pastes are most popular valuable and widely used preparations for cleansing the
teeth. It has largest share of dental cleansing and care preparations.
Tooth pastes are preferred over other dental preparations because of following reasons.
Easy to take and spread on the tooth brush
No spillage or wastage
Proper distribution in mouth
Available in wide varieties
A good tooth paste should have following characteristics
It must clean the dental surface properly without any scratches.
Consistency should be such that it can be easily squeezed out of the tube to spread on
the brush, but should not penetrate in to the brush.
The consistency should remain constant in wide range of temperature during shelf life.
It should be non toxic and should not sensitize buccal membrane.
It should not interact with the container material.
It should have pleasant taste and odour.
It should have good appearance.
Method: – 1
The binder, prewetted with the humectant, it is disperse in liquid portion containing
the saccharin and preservative and allow swelling to form a homogeneous gel. The swelling
may be accelerated by heat and agitation. The solid abrasive is added slowly to homogeneous
gel and mixed in mixer until a paste formed. The flavour and detergent are added last and
Excessive, aeration, particularly in the presence of detergent, should be avoided. The
paste can then be milled, deairated and tubed.
Method: – 2
The binder is premixed with solid abrasive, which is then mixed with the liquid phase,
containing humectant, preservative and sweetener into a mixer. After formation of
homogeneous paste, the flavour and detergent are added, mixed, milled deairated and tubed.
(A) TOOTH POWDERS
Tooth powders are oldest and simplest preparations. Over the years their market
share has been reduced due to popularity of pastes, but steel they have a considerable
The main problems encountered with powders are-
Floating of powder in air during manufacturing.
Formation of cake on storage
Uneven distribution in mouth
Tooth powders contain the following ingredients-
Surfactants or detergents
Abrasives are used in manufacturing of tooth powders are similar to that of tooth pastes.
Though lighter calcium carbonate is used in tooth paste but in tooth powders heavier grade
calcium carbonate is used.
Other ingredients are similar to that of tooth paste.
General procedure for manufacture
This is done by simple mixing
First ingredients of small quantity are premixed and then mixed with other
Ribbon type or agitator type of mixer are used.
Flavour can be sprayed on to the bulk or can be premixed with part of some abrasive.
(3) SOLID BLOCKS
Solid dentifrice is like a soap preparation.
Basically they consist of tooth powder suspended in a base of soap powder,
water, and humectant.
Solid detifrices provide a convenient and handy from of cleaning for the teeth.
The soap first dissolved in a mixture of glycerin and water with the aid of heat. The
powder (abrasive) is then mixed until soft mass formed. Mass is dried on trays, cut into
EVALUATION OF SOLID DENTAL PRODUCTS
Identification of ingredients and estimation of their contents are essential components
of overall quality control and evaluation of dental care products. The products, tooth pastes
and tooth powders, can be basically classified into foam forming and non-foam forming.
Some other special evaluation tests are as follows:
Various tests have been designed and reported over the year, mostly on the set of extracted
teeth. The teeth were mechanically brushed with pastes or powders and then the effects
were studied by observation, mechanical or other means. Abrasive character normally
depended on the particle size. So, study of particle size can also give such idea.
This can be determined by microscopic study of the particles or by sieving or other means.
This is studied by measuring the change in the reflectance character of a lacquer coating on
the polyester film caused by brushing with a tooth cleanser (paste or powder). Also an in vivo
test has been suggested in which teeth were brushed for two weeks and condition of teeth
was assessed before and after use with the help of photo graphs.
It is important that the product , paste, should maintain the consistency to enable the product
press out from the container. Study of viscosity is essential for this. Rheology of powders is
also important for proper flow of the powder from the container.
pH of the product
pH of the dispersion of 10 % of the product in water is determined by PH meter.
This test is specially required for foam forming tooth pastes or tooth powders. Specific
amount of product can be mixed with specific amount of water and to be shaken. The foam
thus formed is studied for its nature, stability, washability.
Limit test for arsenic and lead
This is very important as these are highly toxic metals. Specific tests are there to estimate
these two metals; products may not have excess of such metals.
Volatile matters and moisture
A specific amount of the product required to be taken in a dish and drying is to be done till
constant weight. Loss of weight will indicate percentage of moisture and volatile matters.
Effect of special ingredients
Special test should be done for the special ingredients if any, like antiseptics, enzymes, etc. for
each one special and specific test are to be done.
(4) LIQUID DENTAL PREPARATIONS
Use of liquid dentifrices are comparatively less than solid one.
They are basically aqueous or hydroalcoholic solutions of surfactants with additional
They do not contain any abrasive as they will sediment
Action of this preparation on dental surface is less but the cleansing effect is more.
Manufacturing process is making solution of all ingredients.
Sodium myristate sulphate 4.0 gm
Methyl cellulose 4.0 gm
Saccharine sodium 0.1 gm
Flavouring oil 0.3 gm
Glycerin 5.0 gm
Alcohol 10.0 gm
Water 85.4 gm
Local factors, systemic factors, or a combination of both can cause halitosis.
It is estimated that 80% of all mouth odors are caused by local factors within the oral
cavity, and these odors are most often associated with caries, gingivitis, and
Oral malodors occur because of the action of various microorganisms on proteinaceous
substances, such as, exfoliated oral epithelium, salivary proteins, food debris, and blood.
Studies have shown that saliva from individuals who are free of dental disease produces
malodor less rapidly than saliva from patients with dental disease.
It has also been observed that after prolonged periods of decreased salivary flow and
abstinence from food and liquid malodors tend to be most severe.
Various oral bacteria produce products that are degraded to a number of compounds,
foremost of which are sulfides and mucoproteins.
These compounds have been most often associated with oral malodor.
Specifically, it appears that oral malodor usually results from the bacterial- mediated
degradative processes of methyl mercaptan and hydrogen sulfide in oral air.
Ammonia is also produced but does not appear to contribute significantly to halitosis.
It has even been suggested that ammonia production may improve the odor of mouth
However, for many patients, systemic or local factors cannot be identified.
Tongue scraping has been shown to reduce malodor in some patients.
Mouthwashes and dentifrices can serve an esthetic function by reducing halitosis. They
can accomplish this by masking malodors, acting as antimicrobial agents, or both.
There are no ADA-accepted products to reduce halitosis at this time.
While dentifrice products have a long history of safety, there is an ongoing concern
associated with dental fluorosis due to fluoride ingestion in children under age six. Studies
have shown that for children 1–3 years, 30–75% of the dentifrice is ingested, and for
children 4–7 years 14–48% is ingested.
As with any OTC drug product, precautions need to be taken to prevent overdose. The
FDA requires labeling of all fluoride dentifrice products to include a statement “to
minimize swallowing use a pea-size amount in children under six.”
Making childproof caps available on fluoride dentifrice products intended for use by
children has been recommended.
Another approach would be to provide metered dentifrice delivery systems for children
under age six, which could be set to dispense the correct amount of fluoride depending on
the body weight of the child.
Dental care products
Effervescent Polident Denture Cleansers
Non abrasive cleaning and antibacterial action in a soaking solution with
oxidizing agents and detergents to remove food particles, stains and
bacteria. Cleaning action is available in variants for 3 minutes, overnight
and stain removing whitening and for partials.
Polident Fresh Cleanse Denture Foam
Denture Cleansing foam provides non abrasive mechanical cleaning and
antibacterial action and stain removal with detergents and a long lasting
Polident Dentu-Paste and Dentu- Gel Denture
Mechanical cleaning with a brush using these denture cleansers
containing detergents and oxidizing agents
Super Poligrip Denture Adhesive Cream
Poly (methylvinylether/maleic polymer cross linking salts to
provide adhesion between denture and the alveolar ridge and
the palate. The denture adhesive cream fills gaps between gum
and denture for a strong hold and sealing out food particles
Super Poligrip Denture Adhesive Powder
Poly(methylvinylether/maleic polymer cross linking salts to provide
adhesion between a denture and the alveolar ridge and the palate. The
denture adhesive powder forms a strong, thin seal to keep out food
Super Poligrip Denture Adhesive Strips
Extruded strip with a Polyox/Carboxymethylcellulose system. The denture
adhesive strips are pre cut to control the amount of the application.
Texas Dental Firm Offers Novel Tooth-Whitening Product Line
Ultra-White Products, Inc., a tooth whitening product manufacturer in Texas, now
offers an attractive alternative to marginally effective over-the-counter tooth
whitening product lines and costly dental treatments.
The company’s novel tooth whitening product affords users the ability to obtain
custom application trays and whitening gels at a fraction of the cost normally
associated with professional cosmetic dentistry and are far more effective than
The company has a worldwide following with over 30,000 clients and is owned an
managed by a practicing dentist.
NEWER FORMULATIONS OF DENTIFRICE FROM CHEMICAL ABSTRACTS
Functional toothpaste containing nano sized silver.
High Fluoride ion recovery dentifrice compositions.
Stable Suspensions of composite material s for use as dentifrices containing an
antimicrobial organic acid salt.
Application of water soluble chitosan in toothpaste & mouthwash.
Dentifrice containing silica microparticles as the sole abrasives.
Dentifrice compositions comprising alkyl galactoside derivatives +nonionic
disinfectants or +protein naturants or +vit- E gives strong coaggregation-inhibitory
effect & antibacterial effect against Fusobacterial & other dental caries & periodontal
disease- causing bacteria.
1) Define cosmetics? Put some light on its origin and development through different
2) Describe in brief the cosmetics products for skin?
3) Define shampoo? Write note about it?
4) Write a note on skin colorants?
5) Classify cosmetics with examples?
6) Define cosmoceutical? How it differs from cosmetics products? explain
7) Describe different nail preparations?
8) Write in detail about quality control of cosmetics including sampling size?
9) What is powder? Classify powers ? Give formulation of any one type?
10) Classify raw materials of cosmetics? Write in brief about each with example?
1. Harry’s Cosmeticology, by Ralph.G.Harry, and Leonard Hill books and intertex
publisher. 6th edition.
2. 1) Cosmetics : Science and Technology : Edward Sagarin
3. 2) Cosmetic Science and Technology Series : Volume 19 :
Novel Cosmetic Delivery System : Shlomo Magdassi ,Elka
4. Cosmetics: formulation, Manufacturing, Q.C:P.P SHARMA
5. A Handbook of cosmetics: B.M MITTAL, R.N SAHA
6. COSMETICS & TOILETORIES Journal
10. Encyclopedia of pharmaceutical sciences Vol.3
11. Hand book of cosmetics by Mitthal Cosmetics – Formulations, manufacturing
& quality control P.P.Sharma
12. Cosmetics –formulation by Poucher.
13. Chemical abstract vol-147.No 23 2007.
14. Chemical abstract vol-147.No 5 2007.
15. Chemical abstract vol-151,No 2009.