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Fundamentals and scope of
cosmetic science



• Cosmetic” means any article intended to rubbed, poured,
sprinkled or sprayed on or introduced into, human body or any
part thereof for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness,
altering the appearance and includes any article intended for
use .



• Cosmetics arise from a Greek word ‘kosmeticos’
meaning ‘adorn’.

• If any material used for beautification or improvement
of appearance is known as cosmetics.

• They may be applied to skin, hair and nails for the
purpose of covering colouring, softening, cleansing,
nourishing, and protection.


• Cosmetics are intended to be applied externally.

• They include, but are not limited to, products that can be applied to
the face: skin-care creams, lipsticks, eye and facial
makeup, towelettes, and colored contact lenses; to the
body: deodorants, lotions, powders, perfumes, baby products, bath
oils, bubble baths, bath salts, and body butters; to the hands/nails:
fingernail and toe nail polish, and hand sanitizer; to the hair:
permanent chemicals, hair colors, hair sprays, and gels.

• A subset of cosmetics is called “makeup”, refers primarily to
products containing color pigments that are intended to alter the
user’s appearance. Manufacturers may distinguish between
“decorative” and “care” cosmetics.

• Cosmetics that are meant to be used on the face and eye area are
usually applied with a brush, a makeup sponge, or the fingertips.


• Most cosmetics are distinguished by the area of the
body intended for application.

• Cosmetics can be also described by the physical
composition of the product. Cosmetics can be liquid or
cream emulsions; powders, both pressed and loose;
dispersions; and anhydrous creams or sticks.



Skin hair nail hygienic

Nail lacquers
Hair remover Dental Bath

Powder compact creams Lacquers remover
Face powder lotions colorants Depilator

Nail polish
Astringent Lipstick Epilator Powder

Body powder Cuticle remover Bath
lotion Shaving creams Paste soap

Compact Hair wave ppn Dentifrices

Hair dressing Lotion
Prickling heat

Cold cream Hair conditioner Mouth

Shampoo washes
Vanishing cream

Hair dyes, lotions

All purpose Eye lash (mascara)

Eye brow pencil

Cleansing cream Eye lid inside

Emollient cream






1. Emollients

2. Oil , fats and Wax

3. Humactant

4. Preservatives

5. Binders

6. Surfactant

7. Perfume

8. Color



The word emollient is a Latin derivation and implies a material
that softens and smooths the skin both

to the touch and to the eye.

Emollients should have the effect of reducing the clinical signs
of dryness, such as roughness or scaling,

and improving sensations, such as itching and tightness.

The constituent products of emollients vary hugely, however, all
will have some quantity of lipid in them.

Lipid is a broad term used to describe fats, waxes and oils


Mode of action

Emollients work to moisturise the skin by increasing the
amount of water held in the stratum corneum

Specifically, depending on the constituents of the
emollients, they work either by occlusion, ‘trapping’
moisture into the skin (which slows the evaporation of
water), or in an ‘active’ way by drawing moisture into the
stratum corneum from the dermis.



 Oils- two types

 Vegetable oils

 Mineral oils

 Vegetable oils

Consists of triglycerides- three hydroxyl groups of glycerol esterified
with same or mixed triglycerides of other fatty acids.


 Vegetable oils

 Almond oil- pale yellow oil, consists of glycerides of oleic acid,linoleic
acid,myrstic and palmitic acid.Used in creams and lotions.

 Arachis oil- pale yellow oil with faint nutty odour. Consists of glycerides
of oleic acid,linoleic acid.At low temp it solidifies.Used in hair oils.

 Castor oil- faintly yellow. Consists of 80% ricinoleic acid. Used in hair

 Olive oil – Pale yellow or greenish yellow oil. Consists of glycerides of
oleic acid ,palmitic acid ,lenolic acid ,stearic acid and myristic acid. At low
temp. it solidifies. Used in bath oils,creams,oils.

Coconut oil-


 Mineral oils

 Light liquid paraffin

Mixture of liquid hydrocarbon. Lower viscocity, colorless and odorless
oily liquid. Good spreading agent . Used in bath oils , hair oils

 Heavy liquid paraffin

Mixture of hydrocarbons. Colourless and odourless. Emolient in
nature. Used in creams,lotions,brilliantines,hair oil,bath oil.

* Mineral oil more stable than vegetable oil.

(10 ppm tocopherol /BHT used as stabilizer)



 Originated from vegetable , animal or mineral source or synthetic

These are

 Fatty acids –Stearic acid (C12-C18) and Oleic acid

• Commercially available stearic acid is mixture of palmitic acid and
stearic acid.

• Triple pressed -55% palmitic acid and 45% of stearic acid.

• Used in -Emulsifier for Creams, Lotions and Shaving Cream,
Adhesives, Corrosion Inhibitor


Oleic acid-causes racidity,so preservatives are used

 It increases pearly sheen in lotion and creams.

 Stops the gel formulation , problems when used stearate.

 Fatty alcohols-Cetyl alcohol and stearyl alcohol

 Cetyl alcohol- white waxy solid

• Used as emulsion stabilizer, Emolient

• Hydrophobic nature – produce occlusive film ,which help in
hydration of dry skin.


 Fatty acid esters- Isopropyl stearate, isopropyl palmitate, isopropyl
myristate, glyceryl monostearate

 Oily nature and low viscosity

 After applying to skin- thin, oily film form on skin. Non-greasy in
nature .

 Used as emollient or emulsifying agent

 Increases in viscosity

 Used in lotion and creams

 Mainly used in o/w type emulsion.


 Lanolin and its derivatives

Lanolin – a natural fat consists of higher fatty alcohols and higher fatty

 Good emollient – due to hydrophobic and adhesive nature

 Used concentration- 5%

 produce w/o type emulsion

 Lanolin alcohol –mixture of sterols , triterpine and aliphatic alcohols

 Acetylaed lanolin

 Propionyl lanolin


Soft paraffin – mixture of hydrocarbon obtained from petroleum

 Two types- yellow and white soft paraffin

 Emollient in nature

 Hydrophobic in nature –produce occlusive film ,which prevents
water loss from skin



Bees wax- secreted from hive bees(Apis species)
 Yellowish brown in colour
M.P- 62 – 650 C.
 w/o type emulsion
 Spermaceti
 Solid wax from mixed oils from head ,bubbler of

 Crystalline white
 M.P- 420 C – 500 C
 Synthetic spermaceti is also available –mixture of
esters of saturated fatty alcohols and saturated acids.
 white in colour with crystalline structure


• Paraffin wax /Hard paraffin

Mixture of hydrocarbons consisting of n-paraffins and their

 Obtained by distillation process from petroleum

 It is colorless /odorless

Slightly greasy in nature

 M.P – 500C-570C

 It is the translucent in nature


• Ozokerite Wax/Ceresin /Mineral wax

 Obtained from natural ozokerite by purification process

 Colorless ,odorless and crystalline wax.

 M.P- 500C-750C

• Microcrystalline wax

 Complex mixture of isoparaffins

 As microcrystalline structure- so called microcrystalline wax

 M.P -650C-850C

 Used in preparation of lipsticks


• Carnauba wax

 Obtained from leaves of palm

 Different grades

 Highest grade- light brown

 Moderate grade- pale yellow

 Characteristic bland odor

 M.P- 810C-860C

 Hardest in nature



• Humactant- Hygroscopic in nature, causes absorption of
water vapour from atmosphere.

• A humectant is a substance that is used to keep products
moisturized and affects the preservation of items

• humectants are used in cosmetics to increase the solubility
of a chemical compound’s active ingredients, increasing
the active ingredients’ ability to penetrate skin, or its activity

• Usually aq. solutions of humactant are used

• Used in cosmetics – using for skin



Inorganic – Calcium chloride(corrosive nature)

Metal- organic – Sodium lactate(corrosive nature).

Lactic acid used as combination.

 Organic – Ethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, PEG, glycerine,
propylene glycol



Preservatives are the chemical substances used to improve or
amplify shelf life of PRODUCT by decreasing or lowering the
oxidation of Additives and by reducing microbial production


Use in cosmetics

• These are used in cosmetics to prevent spoilage of product
resulting from

• Oxidation of oils and fats

• Microbial growth


Causes of deterioration of product

• Water

• Additives



• Effective

• Stable Non toxic and non reactive

• Highly soluble, stable

• Cost effective

• Compatible with other additives

• Colorless, Odorless


How to select preservative

• Formulation additives

• pH of aqueous phase

• IS 4707:2001, Annex C-Part I


Factors affecting effectiveness of

• Dissociation and pH

• Concentration of Preservative

• Susceptibility of organisms

• Interference by ingredients of cosmetics

• Influence of solid particles

• Effect of container or packaging


Preservative capacity

“Preservative capacity” is a term used to describe the cumulative
level of contamination that a preserved formulation can tolerate
before becoming so depleted as to become ineffective


Classes of preservatives

• Antimicrobial agents
• Antioxidants
• Chelating agents

• Naturally origin
• Synthetic origin


Antimicrobial agents

• Organic acids

• Alcohols

• Aldehydes,

• Phenolic compounds

• Esters

• Mercury compounds

• Surface active agents



• Rancidity:

Factors affecting Rancidity

• Oxygen

• Moisture

• Light

• Heat

• Presence of pro-oxidants

• External pro-oxidants

• Microorganisms


Classification of Antioxidants

• Phenolic type

• Quinone type

• Amine type

• Organic acids, Alcohols and Esters

• Inorganic acids and their salts



• Most commonly used in powder cosmetics.

• The properties of a binder is as follows: provides creaminess to
the powder, aids in compression and adhesion, develops
colorants, and enhances water resistance, pick-up, and deposit.

• If the binder level is too high, it may be difficult to remove the
powder with a puff. Also, high levels may lead to glazing of the
powder surface, making it waxy looking, with little or no pay-off.

• One must use a binder to press the cake into a tin-plate godet

• Fatty soaps, kaolin, polyethylene, Teflon synthetic wax, and
calcium silicate are some of the binder systems used. Used
levels of binder are between 3 to 10%, depending on
formulation variables.


Binders in cosmetics

• Water-soluble organic binder is necessary to modify the
toothpaste rheology and to prevent water separation

• syndets comprise binders


Classification of binders

1. Based on their source as
1. Natural polymers: Starch, gelatin, tragacanth, gums
2. Synthetic polymer: PVC, HPMC, PEG
3. Sugars: glucose, sucrose, sorbitol

2. By their mode of application as
1. Wet binders: by making solution of binder using appropriate

solvent, e.g starch,gelatin
2. Dry binders: Methyl cellulose



• Surfactants plays a vital role in various cosmetic formulation.

• To formulate compounds sparingly soluble in water, Cosmetic
science acceptable co-solvents or surfactants are typically
employed to increase solubility.

• Polymeric micelles made by surfactants have a whole set of
unique characteristics, which make them a very promising
carrier system for a wide range of cosmeceutical products.


• Surfactants, are wetting agents that lowers the surface tension
of a liquid, allowing easier spreading and dispersion, and can
also lower the interfacial tension between two liquids

• Surfactants are usually organic compounds that are
amphipathic, as they contain both hydrophobic groups (“tails”)
and hydrophilic groups (“heads”). Therefore, they are soluble in
both organic solvents and water. Surfactants are indicated by
the presence of both polar and non-polar region.

• A surfactant molecule is formed by two parts with different
affinities for the solvents. One of them has affinity for water
(polar solvents) and the other for oil (non-polar solvents).



• In the bulk aqueous phase, surfactants form aggregates, such
as micelles, where the hydrophobic tails form the core of the
aggregate and the hydrophilic heads are in contact with the
surrounding liquid.

• Other types of aggregates can also be formed, such as spherical
or cylindrical micelles or lipid bilayers.

• The shape of the aggregates depends on the chemical structure of
the surfactants, namely the balance in size between the
hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail.

• A measure of this is the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB).

• Surfactants reduce the surface tension of water by adsorbing at
the liquid-air interface.









• The “tails” of most surfactants are fairly similar, consisting of
a hydrocarbon chain, which can be branched, linear, or
aromatic. Fluorosurfactants have fluorocarbon chains. Siloxane
surfactants have siloxane chains.

• Many important surfactants include a polyether chain
terminating in a highly polar anionic group. The polyether
groups often comprise ethoxylated (polyethylene oxide-like)
sequences inserted to increase the hydrophilic character of a
surfactant. Polypropylene oxides conversely, may be inserted to
increase the lipophilic character of a surfactant.


• Surfactant molecules have either one tail or two; those with two
tails are said to be double-chained.

• Most commonly, surfactants are classified according to polar
head group.


• The head of an ionic surfactant carries a net positive, or
negative charge.

• If the charge is negative, the surfactant is more specifically called

• if the charge is positive, it is called cationic.

• A non-ionic surfactant has no charged groups in its head.


Soap- Sodium oleate


1. Surfactants having Anionic group
connected directly to hydrophobic unit

Fatty acid soap R-COO-M+

Alkyl sulphates R-OSO3-M+


2. Surfactants having Anionic group
connected through to ester link

Monoglyceride sulphates

Dialkyl sulphosuccinates


3. Surfactants having Anionic group
connected through to ether link

Alkyl ether sulphates R(O-CH2-CH2)NOSO3-M+

Phenol ether sulphates R-C6H4-(O-CH2-CH2)NOSO3-M+


4. Surfactants having Anionic group
connected through to amide link

Alkanolamide sulphates R-CO-NH-CH2-CH2-OSO3-M+

Taurines R-CO-NH-CH2-CH2-SO3-M+


5. Surfactants having Anionic group
connected through to amidine link




• If a surfactant contains a head with two oppositely charged
groups, it is termed zwitterionic.



Sulfate, sulfonate, and phosphate esters

• Anionic surfactants contain anionic functional groups at
their head, such as sulfate, sulfonate, phosphate,
and carboxylates.

• Prominent alkyl sulfates include ammonium lauryl
sulfate, sodium lauryl sulfate (sodium dodecyl sulfate,
SLS, or SDS), and the related alkyl-ether sulfates sodium
laureth sulfate (sodium lauryl ether sulfate or SLES),
and sodium myreth sulfate.


Others include:
• Docusate (dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate)
• Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)
• Perfluorobutanesulfonate
• Alkyl-aryl ether phosphates
• Alkyl ether phosphates



• These are the most common surfactants and comprise the
carboxylate salts (soaps), such as sodium stearate.

• More specialized species include sodium lauroyl
sarcosinate and carboxylate-based fluorosurfactants such
as perfluorononanoate, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA or PFO).


Cationic head groups

• pH-dependent primary, secondary, or tertiary amines; primary
and secondary amines become positively charged at pH <
10: octenidine dihydrochloride.

• Permanently charged quaternary ammonium salts: cetrimonium
bromide (CTAB), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), benzalkonium
chloride (BAC), benzethonium chloride
(BZT), dimethyldioctadecylammonium chloride,
and dioctadecyldimethylammonium bromide (DODAB).



• Quaternary ammonium salts in which nitrogen is directly
attached to hydrophobic part

• Surfactants in which cationic group separated from hydrophobic

• Surfactants in which cationic group is located In heterocyclic

• Dicationic surfactants



• Sulphonium salts

• Phosphonium salts



• Non-ionic surfactants have covalently bonded oxygen-
containing hydrophilic groups, which are bonded to hydrophobic
parent structures. The water-solubility of the oxygen groups is
the result of hydrogen bonding. Hydrogen bonding decreases
with increasing temperature, and the water solubility of non-
ionic surfactants therefore decreases with increasing


• Alkanolamides

• PEG derivatives

• Polyethyleneimine derivatives


Zwitterionic surfactants

• Zwitterionic (amphoteric) surfactants have both cationic and
anionic centers attached to the same molecule.

• These charges can either be permanent or dependent on the
pH value.

• The cationic compound is either an amine or a quaternary
ammonium cation, whereas the anionic part is mostly a
carboxylic, sulfuric, or phosphoric acid (or esters thereof)


• Alkylamino acids

• Acylamino acids

• alkylimidazolines


• The anionic part can be more variable and include sulfonates

• The most common biological zwitterionic surfactants have a
phosphate anion with an amine or ammonium, such as
the phospholipids phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylethanolamin
e, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelins.



• Biosurfactants are surface-active substances synthesised by
living cells. Interest in microbial surfactants is due to their
diversity, environmentally friendly nature, possibility of large-
scale production, selectivity, performance under extreme
conditions, and potential applications in environmental


• Glycolipids and lipopeptides have prompted application in
cosmetics due to their multi-functional profile i.e. detergency,
emulsifying, foaming and skin hydrating properties. Additionally,
some of them can be served as antimicrobials.

• BS reduce the surface and interfacial tensions by the same
mechanism as chemical surfactants. They are used as
multifunctional ingredients in the formulation of cosmetics.


• Non-ionic surfactants are less sensitive to water hardness than
anionic surfactants, and they foam less strongly. The
differences between the individual types of non-ionic
surfactants are slight, and the choice is primarily governed
having regard to the costs of special properties (e.g.,
effectiveness and efficiency, toxicity, dermatological
compatibility, biodegradability) or permission for use in food.


Ideal use in cosmetics

• Emulsifying agents

• Foaming and cleansing agents

• Wetting agent

• Solubilization


Emulsifying agents

• Anionics
• Fatty acid soaps
• Sulphuric esters
• Polyol fatty acid monoesters

• Cationics

• Nonionics

• Natural surfactants


Nonionic surfactants

• They are good foam enhancers (when used with anionics) and
can reduce irritation.

• They also can thicken systems and provide a conditioning

• Additionally, they are very good for solubilizing fragrances and
other natural oils in formulating.

• Finally, gentle cleansers such as baby shampoos are based on
nonionics, the most common of which is PEG-80 sorbitan

• Nonionic surfactants are also the primary surfactants used to
create emulsions.


Foaming and cleansing agents
• Anionics

• Cationics

• Nonionics

• Amphoteric

Wetting agent
• Short chain alkyl sulphates

• Alkyl ether sulphates

• Alkyl aryl sulphonates



• Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or
aromatic compounds, fixatives and solvents used
to give the human body, animal, food objects and
living spaces a pleasant scent.

• It is usually in liquid form and used to give a
pleasant scent to a person’s body. Perfumes
are supposed to release a continuous pleasant
fragrance that will provide a long lasting feeling of


• Earlier easily obtained essential oils (lemon,
bergamot, clove, mint and so on), or their simplest
individual constituents such as terpineol, menthol,
eucalyptol and geraniol, were used.



• Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having
three sets of notes, making the harmonious scent

• These notes are created carefully with knowledge
of the evaporation process of the perfume.

The three notes are:

a. Top notes

b. Middle notes

c.Base notes

Each of these levels, however, has its own primary



a) Top no t e s :
Also called as head notes.
They are generally the lightest of all notes and

recognized immediately after application. Top notes
consist of small, light molecules with high volatility
that evaporate quickly.
Common fragrances of top notes include citrus (lemon,
orange zest), light fruits (grape, berries) and herbs (clary
sage, lavender).
Examples: Basil, Bergamot, Eucalyptus, Fir
(Douglas, Siberian), Galbanum, Grapefruit, Juniper, L
Leaf, Lemon, Lime, Mandarin, Neroli, Orange, Palma
rosa, Peppermint, Petitgrain, Pine, Sage, Spearmint,
Tangerine, Verbena, Yuzu


b ) M i d d l e Notes:
Also referred to as heart notes.
The middle notes, or the heart notes, make an

appearance once the top notes evaporate. The
middle note compounds form the “heart” or main body of
a perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial
impression of base notes, which become more pleasant
with time.

Examples of middle notes include seawater,
sandalwood and jasmine Other common fragrances
of middle notes includes rose, lemon, ylang ylang,
lavender, nutmeg and jasmine.
Examples: Black
Pepper*, Cardamom, Carnation, Cassie, Chamomile, Cinna
mon*, Clary Sage, Clove*, Coffee, Cypress Leaf, Fir,
Balsam, Geranium, Ginger, Helichrysum, Jasmine, Lavende
r, Lemongrass, Lotus, Melissa, Orange
Blossom, Rose, Rosemary, Tuberose, Ylang Ylang



c) B a s e n o t e s :

Base notes or bottom or dry notes appear while middle
notes are fading. The base and middle notes together are
the main theme of a perfume. Base notes bring depth and
solidity to a perfume.

Common fragrances of base notes include amber and
Examples: Agarwood, Amber Oil
(Fossilized), Ambrette, Amyris, Angelica Root, Balsam
of Peru, Cedarwood, Cistus, Cocoa, Elemi, Fir,
Absolute, Frankincense, Labdanum, Liquidambar, Liq
Oleoresin, Myrrh, OaFikgm: Tohsrese, nOotrersis o,fPatchouli, Sandalw
ood, Tobacco, Tonkap eBrfeuwmawwne.D,uloVMaix.cnomilla, Vetiver, Violet



• Perfumes are classified into five major groups on the
basis of concentration of fragrance and duration of

Class % of aromatic Duration (hours)

Parfume(perfume) 20-30 6-8

Eau de parfume 15-20 4-5

Eau de toilette 5-15 2-3

Eau de cologne 2-4 2

Eau fraiche 1-3 2


• parfum or extrait, in English known as perfume extract, pure
perfume, or simply perfume: 15–40% aromatic compounds (IFRA:
typically ~20%);

• esprit de parfum (ESdP): 15–30% aromatic compounds, a seldom
used strength concentration in between EdP and perfume;

• eau de parfum (EdP) or parfum de toilette (PdT) (The strength
usually sold as “perfume”): 10–20% aromatic compounds (typically
~15%); sometimes called “eau de perfume” or “millésime”; parfum
de toilette is a less common term, most popular in the 1980s, that is
generally analogous to eau de parfum;

• eau de toilette (EdT): 5–15% aromatic compounds (typically
~10%); This is the staple for most masculine perfumes.

• eau de Cologne (EdC): often simply called cologne: 3–8% aromatic
compounds (typically ~5%); see below for more information on the
confusing nature of the term “cologne”;

• eau fraiche: products sold as “splashes”, “mists”, “veils” and other
imprecise terms. Generally these products contain 3% or less
aromatic compounds and are diluted with water rather than oil or




• Alcohol Base Perfume: 5-25% Concentration

• Oil Base Perfume: 15-30% Concentration

• Solid Perfume: 25-40% Concentration



• Single Floral: Fragrances dominated by a particular flower; in
French called a soliflore. Example: Serge Lutens Sa Majeste La

• Floral Bouquet: Compound of several flower scents.
Examples: Houbigant Quelques Fleurs, Jean PatouJoy

• Amber or “Oriental”: Large class featuring sweet, slightly animalic
scents of ambergris or labdanum, often combined
with vanilla, tonka bean, flowers and woods. Can be enhanced by
camphorous oils and incense resins, evoking Victorian era
“Oriental” imagery. Traditional examples: Guerlain Shalimar, Yves
Saint Laurent Opium, Chanel Coco Mademoiselle.

• Woody: Fragrances dominated by woody scents,
typically agarwood, sandalwood, cedarwood, and vetiver. Patchouli,
with its camphoraceous smell, is commonly found in these
perfumes. Traditional examples: Myrurgia Maderas De
Oriente, Chanel Bois des Îles. Modern: Balenciaga Rumba.


• Leather: A family of fragrances featuring honey, tobacco,
wood and wood tars in the middle or base notes and a scent
that alludes to leather. Traditional examples: Robert
Piguet Bandit, Balmain Jolie Madame.

• Chypre : Meaning Cyprus in French, this includes fragrances
built on bergamot, oakmoss, and labdanum Named
after François Coty Chypre (1917). Modern
example: Guerlain Mitsouko.

• Fougère : Meaning fern in French, built on a base
of lavender, coumarin and oakmoss, with a sharp herbaceous
and woody scent.


• Perfumes can further be classified into following

1 . B r i g h t flo r a l : Fragrance from one or several flowers.

e.g. Estee lauder’s Beautiful
2 . Green: Fragrance from cut grass or leaf. e.g. Calvin

Klein’s Eternity
3 . A q u a t i c : A clean smell reminiscent of ocean. e.g.

Davidoff Cool Water
4 . Ci t rus : Has freshening effect. e.g. Faberge Brut
5 . Fru i t y : Aromas of fruits other than citrus. e.g.

Ginestet Botrytis
6 . G o u r m a n d : Scent with edible or desert like qualities.

e.g. Thierry Mugler’s Angel.


3 Fragrance wheel
by Michael Anthony Edwards (10 December 1943) is
a British fragrance taxonomist



Fragrances used in perfume can be found
from following sources:

a ) P l a n t S o u rc e :

Barks, flowers, blossoms, fruits, resin,
roots, seeds, woods etc.

b ) A n i m a l S o u rc e :

Musk, civet, honeycomb etc.
c ) S y n t h e t i c S o u rc e :

Calone, synthetic terpenes, white musk


Plant Source:

• Bark: Commonly used barks include cinnamon and cascarilla. The
fragrant oil in sassafras root bark is also used either directly or purified
for its main constituent, safrole, which is used in the synthesis of other
fragrant compounds.

• Flowers and blossoms: Undoubtedly the largest and most common
source of perfume aromatics.

• Includes the flowers of several species of rose and jasmine, as well
as osmanthus, plumeria, mimosa, tuberose, narcissus, scented
geranium, cassie, ambrette as well as the blossoms
of citrus and ylang-ylang trees.

• Although not traditionally thought of as a flower, the unopened flower
buds of the clove are also commonly used.

• Most orchid flowers are not commercially used to produce essential
oils or absolutes, except in the case of vanilla, an orchid, which must
be pollinated first and made into seed pods before use in perfumery.


• Fruits: Fresh fruits such
as apples, strawberries, cherries rarely yield the expected
odors when extracted; if such fragrance notes are found in a
perfume, they are more likely to be of synthetic origin.
Notable exceptions include blackcurrant leaf, litsea cubeba,
vanilla, and juniper berry.

• The most commonly used fruits yield their aromatics from the
rind; they include citrus such as oranges, lemons, and limes.

• Although grapefruit rind is still used for aromatics, more and
more commercially used grapefruit aromatics are artificially
synthesized since the natural aromatic contains sulfur and its
degradation product is quite unpleasant in smell.


• Leaves and twigs: Commonly used for perfumery
are lavender leaf, patchouli, sage, violets, rosemary, and citrus leaves.
Sometimes leaves are valued for the “green” smell they bring to
perfumes, examples of this include hay and tomato leaf.

• Resins: Valued since antiquity, resins have been widely used
in incense and perfumery. Highly fragrant and antiseptic resins and
resin-containing perfumes have been used by many cultures as
medicines for a large variety of ailments. Commonly used resins in
perfumery nclude labdanum, frankincense/olibanum, myrrh, balsam of
Peru, benzoin. Pine and fir resins are a particularly valued source
of terpenes used in the organic synthesis of many other synthetic or
naturally occurring aromatic compounds. Some of what is
called amber and copal in perfumery today is the resinous secretion of
fossil conifers.


• Roots, rhizomes and bulbs: Commonly used terrestrial
portions in perfumery include iris rhizomes, vetiver roots,
various rhizomes of the ginger family.

• Seeds: Commonly used seeds include tonka bean, carrot
seed, coriander, caraway, cocoa, nutmeg, mace, cardamom,
and anise.

• Woods: Highly important in providing the base notes to a
perfume, wood oils and distillates are indispensable in
perfumery. Commonly used woods
include sandalwood, rosewood, agarwood, birch, cedar, junip
er, and pine. These are used in the form of macerations or
dry-distilled (rectified) forms.

• Rom terpenes. Orchid scents


Animal Source:

• Ambergris: Lumps of oxidized fatty compounds, whose
precursors were secreted and expelled by the sperm whale.
Ambergris should not be confused with yellow amber, which is
used in jewelry.

• Because the harvesting of ambergris involves no harm to its
animal source, it remains one of the few animalic fragrancing
agents around which little controversy now exists.

• Castoreum: Obtained from the odorous sacs of the North
American beaver.

• Civet: Also called civet musk, this is obtained from the odorous
sacs of the civets, animals in the family Viverridae, related to
the mongoose.


• Hyraceum: Commonly known as “Africa stone”, is the
petrified excrement of the rock hyrax.

• Honeycomb: From the honeycomb of the honeybee. Both
beeswax and honey can be solvent extracted to produce an
absolute. Beeswax is extracted with ethanol and the ethanol
evaporated to produce beeswax absolute.

• Musk: Originally derived from a gland (sac or pod) located
between the genitals and the umbilicus of the Himalayan
male musk deer Moschus moschiferus, it has now mainly
been replaced by the use of synthetic musks sometimes
known as “white musk”.


Synthetic sources

• Calone, a compound of synthetic origin, imparts a fresh
ozonous metallic marine scent that is widely used in
contemporary perfumes.

• linalool and coumarin are both naturally occurring compounds
that can be inexpensively synthesized from terpenes.

• Orchid scents (typically salicylates) are usually not obtained
directly from the plant itself but are instead synthetically created
to match the fragrant compounds found in various orchids.

• W hite musks one of the most commonly used classes of
synthetic aromatics.


Perfumes are mainly composed of –
1.Essential oils:

Derived from natural aromatic plant extracts and/or
synthetic aromatic chemicals. E.g. limonene, linalool,
geraniol, citral etc.

2. Fixatives:
Natural or synthetic substances used to reduce

the evaporation rate. E.g. benzyl benzoate, benzyl
alcohol etc.

3. Solvents:
The liquid in which the perfume oil is dissolved

in is usually 98% ethanol and 2% water.
Alcohol allows fragrance to spread along with it and
does not permit microbial growth in the perfume.



Perfumes can be manufactured by following

I. Collection

II. Extraction

III. Blending

IV. Aging


I . C o l l e c t i o n :
1 Before the manufacturing process begins, the
initial ingredients must be brought to the
manufacturing center. Plant substances are
harvested from around the world, often hand-picked
for their fragrance. Animal products are obtained by
extracting the fatty substances directly from the
animal. Aromatic chemicals used in synthetic
perfumes are created in the laboratory by perfume



I I . E x t r a c t i o n :
• Oils are extracted from plant substances by several methods:

steam distillation, solvent extraction, enfleurage, maceration,
and expression.


In steam distillation, steam is passed through plant material
held in a still, whereby the essential oil turns to gas. This gas
is then passed through tubes, cooled, and liquified. Oils can
also be extracted by boiling plant substances like flower
petals in water instead of steaming them.

Under solvent extraction, flowers are put into large rotating
tanks or drums and benzene or a petroleum ether is poured
over the flowers, extracting the essential oils. The flower parts
dissolve in the solvents and leave a waxy material that
contains the oil, which is then placed in ethyl alcohol. The oil
dissolves in the alcohol and rises. Heat is used to evaporate
the alcohol, which once fully burned off, leaves a higher
concentration of the perfume oil on the bottom.


• During enfleurage, flowers are spread on glass sheets coated
with grease. The glass sheets are placed between wooden
frames in tiers. Then the flowers are removed by hand and
changed until the grease has absorbed their fragrance.

Maceration is similar to enfleurage except that warmed fats
are used to soak up the flower smell. As in solvent extraction,
the grease and fats are dissolved in alcohol to obtain the
essential oils.

• Expression is the oldest and least complex method of
extraction. By this process, now used in obtaining citrus oils
from the rind, the fruit or plant is manually or mechanically
pressed until all the oil is squeezed out.


I I I . B l e n d i n g :

Once the perfume oils are collected, they are
ready to be blended together according to a formula
determined by a master in the field, known as a
After the scent has been created, it is mixed with
alcohol. Most full perfumes are made of about 10-
20% perfume oils dissolved in alcohol and a trace of

I V . A g i n g :

Fine perfume is often aged for several months or
even years after blending to ensure that the correct
scent has been achieved.



• Fixation is a process that promotes the retention of the
fragrance on the wearer for as long as possible.

• A fixative is used to equalize the vapor pressures, and thus
the volatilities, of the raw materials in a perfume oil, as well as
to increase the tenacity.

• Fixatives are the non-volatile substances used to slow down the
evaporation rate of the volatile components of a fragrance.
They help perfume makers to perfect their blends to the highest
level and are indispensable tools of trade within the perfume


• Fixatives are materials that:

• 1. Slow down the rate of evaporation of the more volatile materials
in a perfume composition, causing only gradual changes in the
aroma of the perfume as the ingredients in it fade away;

• 2. Lend a particular note to the perfume throughout all stages of
evaporation but do not significantly affect the evaporation rate of
the other materials in the perfume;

• 3. Improve, fortify, and/or transport the vapors and/or lend a
combination of a diffusive or retentive effect, typically through the
addition of trace amounts;

• 4. And/or are odorless or almost odorless and lend a stabilizing
action by paralyzing the odor of the low-boiling (volatile) materials
in the perfume.


• The raw materials used for fixation in perfumes can be of
natural or synthetic nature.

• Natural fixatives are resinoids
(benzoin, labdanum, myrrh, olibanum, storax, tolu balsam) and
animal products (ambergris, castoreum, musk, and civet

• Synthetic fixatives include substances of low volatility
(diphenylmethane, cyclopentadecanolide, ambroxide, benzyl
salicylate) and virtually odorless solvents with very low vapor
pressures (benzyl benzoate, diethyl phthalate, triethyl citrate).


• Ambrette Seed: Known for its exalting (lifting) effect, has an
incredibly tenacious rich, sweet floral-musky distinctly wine- or
brandy-like odor (used as a musk substitute); blends well with
rose, neroli, sandalwood, clary sage, cypress, patchouli, oriental
and ‘sophisticated’ bases. Use very sparingly.

• Amyris: Has a very tenacious, rich, complex odor that quickly
fades out to a weak woody-balsamic scent, but is still a well-known
fixative; it finds extensive application as a mild blender in
numerous types of perfumes and blends well with lavandin,
oakmoss, citronella, rose, Virginia cedarwood, etc.

• Angelica Root: Unique tenacity and great diffusive power, base
note – use very sparingly; blends well with patchouli, oakmoss,
clary sage, vetiver, and special citrus blends.

• Balsam of Peru: Has a rich, sweet, balsamic vanilla-like odor;
blends well with ylang-ylang, patchouli, petitgrain, sandalwood,
spice oils, floral oils, most citrus oils, and oriental bases. An
excellent fixative for rose, heliotrope, magnolia, and lilac perfumes.


• Cedarwood, Atlas: Has a sweet tenacious, woody-balsamic odor with
a warm camphor-like top note; blends well with bergamot, cypress,
cassie, clary sage, frankincense, jasmine, juniper, labdanum,
lavandin, neroli, rose, rosemary, vetiver, ylang-ylang, oriental and
floral bases.

• Cistus / Labdanum: Has a rich, sweet, herbal-balsamic, slightly
leathery fragrance, and a characteristic ambergris-like odor. Extremely
tenacious and a fixative par excellence, it blends well with oakmoss,
clary sage, juniper, lavender, lavandin, bergamot, cypress, vetiver,
sandalwood, patchouli, frankincense (olibanum), and oriental bases.

• Clary Sage: Has an herbal-sweet, nut-like fragrance with unusual
tenacity; somewhat heavy with a balsamic, ambergris-like dryout
reminiscent of tobacco, sweet hay, and tea leaves. An excellent
fixative that can be used with perfumes of a more delicate bouquet,
and with bergamot, cedarwood, citronella, cognac, cypress, geranium,
frankincense, grapefruit, jasmine, juniper, labdanum, lavender, lime,
and sandalwood.


• Cognac: A somewhat oily liquid of intensely strong, almost harsh-
fruity, oily-fatty, yet green-herbaceous odor with outstanding tenacity
and great diffusive power. Used in trace amounts to give lift and fresh-
fruity natural notes; blends excellently with ambrette seed, bergamot,
clary sage, coriander, galbanum, lavender, liquidambar (styrax),
ylang-ylang, etc.

• Frankincense: Has a fresh warm, rich, sweet-balsamic, spicy odor
with a hint of turpentine-like top note, used with very heavy
fragrances; blends well with basil, black pepper, bergamot, galbanum,
geranium, grapefruit, lavender, orange, melissa, neroli, patchouli,
vetiver, sandalwood, and other spice oils. It modifies the sweetness of
citrus blends in an intriguing way.

• Galbanum: Has a remarkably powerful fresh extremely dry/tart green
leaf odor with a woody-dry balsamic or damp woods undertone. A
modifier that blends well with lavender, oakmoss, fir, Liquidambar
(styrax), elemi, jasmine, frankincense, palmarosa, geranium, ginger,
rose, verbena, ylang-ylang, and oriental bases (use very, very


• Liquidambar (Styrax): Has a sweet-balsamic, rich and tenacious
odor, to be used most sparingly, but is an important element in lilac,
narcissus, jonquil, hyacinth, jasmine, tuberose, and wisteria bases. It
also blends well with ylang-ylang, rose, lavender, carnation, violet,
cassie and spice oils. Benign solvent (ethanol) extracted Resinoid.

• Liquidambar (Styrax) Oleoresin: Has a sweet, rich balsamic,
somewhat woody-spicy aroma, with a peculiar styrene topnote,
resinous, musk- and amber-like undertones, and a long soft, sweet
woody drydown. A bit richer than our Liquidambar (Styrax) and solvent
free but prohibited by the IFRA (due to potentially faulty data on

• Myrrh: An excellent fixative with a smoky-woody or warm sweet-
balsamic and slightly spicy-medicinal odor, and is excellent with violet,
white rose, and lavender; also blends well with frankincense,
sandalwood, oakmoss, cypress, juniper, mandarin, geranium,
patchouli, thyme, mints, and spice oils, and in heavy floral blends.


• Oakmoss: Has a heavy, rich earthy-mossy, bark-like and extremely
tenacious fragrance with a high fixative value; blends well with
virtually all other oils, including lavender and ylang-ylang. Used to
lend body and rich natural undertones to all perfume types.

• Orris Root: Has a delicate sweet floral-woody odor; blends well with
carnation, cassie, cedarwood, bergamot, vetiver, cypress, geranium,
mimosa, labdanum, clary sage, rose, violet, and other florals.

• Patchouli: Displays outstanding richness and tenacity, with a strong
rich earthy-herbal and pungent odor ; can be used in oriental
bouquets, and with bergamot, black pepper, cassie, cedarwood,
cinnamon, clary sage, clove, elemi, frankincense, galbanum,
geranium, ginger, jasmine, labdanum, lavender, lemongrass, myrrh,
neroli, oakmoss, orris, rose, rosewood, sandalwood, and vetiver.

• Sandalwood: Has a deep, soft, sweet-woody balsamic fragrance with
excellent tenacity; blends well with violet note perfumes, bergamot,
black pepper, cassie, clove, geranium, jasmine, labdanum, lavender,
myrrh, oakmoss, patchouli, rose, rosewood, tuberose, and vetiver.


• Vanilla: Has quite an outstanding tenacity and a sweet, balsamic odor
that lends an unsurpassed richness and depth to many types of
sweet-floral or heavy amber bases, Oriental perfumes, etc., where it
blends excellently with sandalwood, vetiver, balsams, and spice oils,
also cassie, lavandin and lavender.

• Vetiver: Deep, smoky and earthy-woody fragrance with a sweet
persistent undertone; can be used in oriental bouquets, and with
frankincense, patchouli, oakmoss, sandalwood, violet, ylang-ylang,
galbanum, geranium, jasmine, lavender, clary sage, cassie, and rose.

• Violet Leaf: Has a dry, strong, fresh green-leaf odor with a hay-like or
delicate floral undertone; has tremendous diffusion and delicate
naturalness when used in very low concentrations. Lends an
unsurpassed elegance in certain floral blends, e.g., hyacinth, muguet,
high-class chypres, etc. Blends excellently with sandalwood,
frankincense, lavender, rose, jasmine, tuberose, clary sage, cumin,
basil, and most citrus oils.


• FOR natural route, fixative materials like Patchouli, Vetiver,
Labdanum and others have great fixation ability. However, their
odor can easily dominate entire blend or drastically alter it if
they are not carefully handled.

• There are extensive fixatives available that can be used in a
blend to extend the evaporation rate of each of the different
notes in a perfume.
ALSO different fixing agents for different parts of your blend
CAN BE USED . For instance, you might choose to only fix the
top and middle notes in your composition if the base note
already has enough lasting power.


• On the whole, when the composition process of a perfume is
well thought out and its blending balanced, it shouldn’t require
too much fixing.



Ingredients Use Side effects
Sandal wood Fragrance Hypersensitivity
Limonene Slightly astringent Irritates the skin

Benzyl Fixative Skin irritant
alcohol causing redness

and pain
Benzyl Fixative; Skin irritation like
benzoat sweet blister, itching,
e balsamic scaling, redness.

Acetone Solvent Inhalation cause

dryness of mouth &

Ethyl acetate Solvent Defatting effect on skin & may cause

drying & cracking



• Attar is a perfume or essential oil obtained from
flowers or petals (often from bark or leaves). It is
mainly used in religious purpose.

• The word “attar” comes from the word `atir,
which in the Persian language means
“sweet or fragrant.“

• Attars are alcohol-free and are used by
many Muslim men and women.

• Attars are also used among Hindu, Buddhist
meditation practices.


 On the basis of manufacturing ingredients attars are

classified into following classes-
 Floral Attars:

Attars manufactured from single species of flower.
 Herbal Attars:

Attars manufactured from combination of floral, herbal &

 Attars can also be classified based on their effect on human body
Warm Attars:

Attars such as Musk, Amber, Saffron, Oud are used in
winters, they increase the body temperature.

 Cool Attars:
like Rose, Jasmine, Khus, Kewda, Mogra, are used in

summers and they have cooling effect on the body.



Attar Perfume

1. Pure, only contains natural 1. Often contains synthetic products
products. as fragrance and additives.

2. No use of alcohol. 2. Alcohol is used as solvent

3. Essential oil is separated from 3. Separation process can be done in
flower in a closed vessel. both open and closed vessel.

4. Manufacturing process is 4. Manufactured via steam
water distillation. distillation, solvent extraction,

enfleurage, expression etc.
5. Sandalwood oil is used as fixative. 5. Benzyl benzoate, benzyl

salicylate, benzyl alcohol etc. are
used as fixative

6. Long lasting, evaporates slowly 6. Evaporates faster than attar



•Colour is an important ingredient of cosmetic
formulation as well as colored cosmetics.

• Colours can be classified into three classes:
 Natural colour
 Inorganic colour
 Coal tar colour


1. Cochineal
Natural 2. Saffron
Colours 3. Chlorophyll

1. Iron oxide
2. Chromium oxide

Inorganic 3. Ultramarines
Colours 4. Carbon black

5. Titanium dioxide
6. Zinc oxide

Coaltar 1. Tartrazine
Colours 2. Amaranth

3. Indigocarmine
4. Orange G


Regulation to use of colors in cosmetics

• No Cosmetic shall contain Dyes, Colours and Pigments
other than those specified by the Bureau of Indian
Standards (IS:4707 Part 1 as amended) and Schedule

• The permitted Synthetic Organic Colours and Natural
Organic Colours used in the

• Cosmetic shall not contain more than:-

• (i) 2 parts per million of arsenic calculated as arsenic

• (ii) 20 parts per million of lead calculated as lead.

• (iii) 100 parts per million of heavy metals other than
lead calculated as the total of the respective metals.]


Cosmetic Vs Drug



• According to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act1,

• A cosmetic product is anything “Intended to be rubbed, poured,
sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied
to the human body… for cleansing, beautifying, promoting
attractiveness, or altering the appearance.”

• examples: Moisturizer, Shampoo, Toothpaste, Deodorant etc

• Because cosmetics don’t interfere with any bodily function,
they aren’t required to undergo strict tests to determine
their efficacy.



• FD&C Act defines drugs as anything “Intended for use in the
diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of
disease” and “articles (other than food) intended to affect the
structure of any function of the body of man or other

• For example, a sunscreen agents can prevent skin diseases,
which is why it is considered a drug.

• Because drugs can affect the body on a much deeper level,
they need to undergo very strict tests before they can be
sold. These tests need to prove the product is both effective
and safe. And, this takes a lot more time and study.



These are called OTC drugs, because you get these without a
OTC drugs are products with two purposes:
Antidandruff shampoo: cleanses hair (cosmetic use) and treats
dandruff (drug use)
Moisturizer with SPF: beautifies skin (cosmetic use) and
prevents cancer (drug use)

These hybrids need to comply with the requirements
for both drugs and cosmetics.



• It depends both on the ingredients included and the claims
the product makes.

• For example, some ingredients, such as fluoride, have a well-
known therapeutic use, so anything that contains them is
automatically considered a drug. On the other hand, products
that contain ingredients that can alter the structure and function
of the body, like retinol (it can boost collagen production and
accelerate cellular turnover), can be considered drugs if they
claim to only beautify skin.

• In addition, products marketed as cosmetics can be considered
drugs when they claim to treat diseases or affect the function of
the human body. This is the case for products that claim to
reduce cellulite, increase collagen production, and accelerate
cellular turnover.



•Colour is an important ingredient of cosmetic
formulation as well as colored cosmetics.

• Colours can be classified into three classes:
 Natural colour
 Inorganic colour
 Coal tar colour


1. Cochineal
Natural 2. Saffron
Colours 3. Chlorophyll

1. Iron oxide
2. Chromium oxide

Inorganic 3. Ultramarines
Colours 4. Carbon black

5. Titanium dioxide
6. Zinc oxide

Coaltar 1. Tartrazine
Colours 2. Amaranth

3. Indigocarmine
4. Orange G


Regulation to use of colors in cosmetics

• No Cosmetic shall contain Dyes, Colours and Pigments
other than those specified by the Bureau of Indian
Standards (IS:4707 Part 1 as amended) and Schedule

• The permitted Synthetic Organic Colours and Natural
Organic Colours used in the

• Cosmetic shall not contain more than:-

• (i) 2 parts per million of arsenic calculated as arsenic

• (ii) 20 parts per million of lead calculated as lead.

• (iii) 100 parts per million of heavy metals other than
lead calculated as the total of the respective metals.]


Cosmetic Vs Drug formulation

According to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics

• A cosmetic product is anything “Intended to be rubbed,
poured, sprinkled, or sprayed on, introduced into, or
otherwise applied to the human body… for cleansing,
beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering
the appearance.”

• examples: Moisturizer, Shampoo, Toothpaste,
Deodorant etc

• Because cosmetics don’t interfere with any bodily
function, they aren’t required to undergo strict tests
to determine their efficacy.



• FD&C Act defines drugs as anything “Intended for use
in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or
prevention of disease” and “articles (other than
food) intended to affect the structure of any function
of the body of man or other animals.”

• For example, a sunscreen agents can prevent skin
diseases, which is why it is considered a drug.

• Because drugs can affect the body on a much deeper
level, they need to undergo very strict tests before
they can be sold. These tests need to prove the product
is both effective and safe. And, this takes a lot more
time and study.



These are called OTC drugs, because you get these without a
OTC drugs are products with two purposes:
Antidandruff shampoo: cleanses hair (cosmetic use) and treats
dandruff (drug use)
Moisturizer with SPF: beautifies skin (cosmetic use) and
prevents cancer (drug use)

These hybrids need to comply with the requirements
for both drugs and cosmetics.



• It depends both on the ingredients included and the claims
the product makes.

• For example, some ingredients, such as fluoride, have a well-
known therapeutic use, so anything that contains them is
automatically considered a drug. On the other hand, products
that contain ingredients that can alter the structure and function
of the body, like retinol (it can boost collagen production and
accelerate cellular turnover), can be considered drugs if they
claim to only beautify skin.

• In addition, products marketed as cosmetics can be considered
drugs when they claim to treat diseases or affect the function of
the human body. This is the case for products that claim to
reduce cellulite, increase collagen production, and accelerate
cellular turnover.


Water for cosmetic


Quality of water

• D and C act SCHEDULE M-II

• Source of water : The water used in manufacture shall be of
potable quality.

• For formulation: water used should be free from
impurities/inorganic matter and microbes.


• Purified water (PW) should be prepared from a potable water
source as a

• minimum-quality feed-water, should meet the pharmacopoeial
specifications forchemical and microbiological purity, and
should be protected from recontamination and microbial


• The chosen water purification method, or sequence of purification
steps, must be appropriate to the application in question.

• The following should be considered when selecting the water
treatment method:

• — the water quality specification;
• — the yield or efficiency of the purification system;
• — feed-water quality and the variation over time (seasonal

• — the reliability and robustness of the water-treatment equipment

in operation;
• — the availability of water-treatment equipment on the market;
• — the ability to adequately support and maintain the water

purification equipment; and — the operation costs.


• The specifications for water purification equipment, storage and
distribution systems should take into account the following:

• — the risk of contamination from leachates from contact materials;

• — the adverse impact of adsorptive contact materials;

• — hygienic or sanitary design, where required;

• — corrosion resistance;

• — freedom from leakage;

• — configuration to avoid proliferation of microbiological organisms;

• — tolerance to cleaning and sanitizing agents (thermal and

• — the system capacity and output requirements; and

• — the provision of all necessary instruments, test and sampling
points to allow all the relevant critical quality parameters of the
complete system to be monitored.


• The design, configuration and layout of the water purification

• storage and distribution systems should also take into account
the following

• physical considerations:

• — the space available for the installation;

• — structural loadings on buildings;

• — the provision of adequate access for maintenance; and

• — the ability to safely handle regeneration and sanitization


• Typical processes employed at a user plant or by a water
supply authority

• include:

• — filtration;

• — softening;

• — disinfection or sanitization (e.g. by sodium hypochlorite
(chlorine) injection);

• — iron (ferrous) removal;

• — precipitation; and

• — reduction of specific inorganic/organic materials.


• Systems that operate and are maintained at elevated
temperatures, in the

• range of 70–80°C, are generally less susceptible to
microbiological contamination

• than systems that are maintained at lower temperatures. When
lower temperatures

• are required due to the water treatment processes employed or

• temperature requirements for the water in use, then special
precautions should

• be taken to prevent the ingress and proliferation of
microbiological contaminants


Water free from impurities

Filtration : Membrane filters(0.2mµ)

 Distillation /Double distillation

 Ion exchange system

 Resins are used – to remove cations and anions to
form de-ionised water.

 Columns are made up of resins can be regenerated.

 Reverse Osmosis – 75% purified water collected and 25%
as concentrated water.

Membranes are made up of cellulose nitrate and polyamide.


Water free from Microbiological matter

Microbes grow at pH 6-8

So pH of formulation should be outside this range.(less than 4 or
greater than 8)

Chemical treatment-

Chlorine (1 to 4ppm) to de-ionised water. Formaldehyde also
used .

Heat treatment –boiling –helding for 20 mins. For spores-boiling
after 2hrs.

UV radiation – below 300nm-lethal effect on microbes.

UV/ RO –

Filtration – membrane filters


Anatomy and composition
of Skin and Hair


Skin – Largest organ and body’s 1st point of contact
with the outside world.

Accounts 7% of body weight…it weighs twice as
much as your brain!

Divided into three distinct layers

Epidermis (‘epi” means above something)


Hypodermis (“hypo” means deep to

Note: “SKIN” refers to all1 three

layers: epidermis, dermis, a2nd


The skin covers the body and is the largest organ of the
body by surface area and weight

Its area is about 2 square meters (22
square feet) and weighs 4.5-5kg (10-11 lb), about 16%

of body weight

It is 0.5 – 4 mm thick, thinnest on the eyelids, thickest on
the heels; the average thickness is 1 – 2 1mm


3 types: glabrous, hairy and facial skin.


Glabrous skin : Found on plams and soles of feet.

Lacks hair follicles and sebaceous gland.

Have a very thick epidermis.

Hairy Skin : Hair follicles and sebaceous glands present.

Facial Skin : Large sebaceous glands associated with

. hairs.




Skin pH = naturally acidic (pH 4 – 6)

Lower pH produce certain amino acids and lactic acid by
combining with acidic substance present in sebum and serum.

This acid mantle resists chemical and microbial attack by acting
as chemical buffer, detoxifying agent and bacteriostat.

Skin’s viscoelastic nature offers high degree of resistance to
mechanical trauma.

Guards body against damage by UV light from sun and other

Prevents excessive water loss from body otherwise
leads to dehydration. 1



Layer of skin are made of two type of fundamental tissue organization

 1) epidermis = epithelium

Stratum cornum : Most superficial layer of epidermis (Dead cells

Stratum lucidum: It is thin translucent layer.

Stratum granulosum : It is consist of keratin protein.

Stratum spinosum : It consist of flattened polygonal cells.

Stratum germinativum : It consist of melanocytes

 2) dermis = connective tissue


The epidermis has a number of important

 Theepidermis is composed of keratinized

squamous epithelium

It contains four major types of cells:

 Keratinocytes : (90% of the cells) Produce keratin which
is a 1

tough fibrous protein that provides prot8ection


Melanocytes: Produce the melanin pigment that protects
against damage by ultraviolet radiation

Langerhans cells: Involved in immune
responses, arise from red bone marrow

Merkel cells: Functions in the touch sensation along with the
adjacent tactile discs





The epidermis contains four major layers (thin skin) or five
major layers (thick skin)

Stratum basale/stratum germinativum :(Deepest layer)
Continuous cell division occurs which produces all the other

Stratum spinosum : 8-10 layers of keratinocytes

Stratum granulosum : Includes keratohyalin and lamellar


Stratum lucidum : Present only in thick skin (the skin of the fingertips,
palms, and soles)

Stratum corneum : Composed of many sublayers of flat, dead
keratinocytes called corneocytes or squames that are continuously
shed and replaced by cells from deeper strata; constant friction can
stimulate formation of a callus.

Keratinization : The accumulation of more and more protective keratin,
occurs as cells move from the deepest layer to the surface layer.

Dandruff : An excess of keratinized cells shed from the scalp.




It has 4 types of cells
The cell type that makes the epidermis is a


 Keratin is a protein made by these cells.

 Keratin is waterproof and strong

MERKEL CELLS: used as sensory receptors for the sense of light touch.

MACROPHAGES: ingest debris

MELANOCYTES produce MELANIN (dark brown pigment; the only color
pigment we can produce)

 Everyone has the same number of melanocytes

 But they don’t all make the same amount of pigment, so
people have different skin colors.

This is the only layer of the epidermis where the cells are dividing.

As new cells are made in the S. Basale, the older cells get pushed up
and become the next layer (S. Spinosum)




They are now attached to each other by desmosomes, which are
pointy/spiny (“spinosum”)

The cells are still alive, but they no longer divide in this layer.
They are not dead, just in “menopause”!

Also contains Langerhan’s cells, which are white blood cells that function in
the immune response. They are made in the red bone marrow.

The stratum spinosum provides the strength to the epidermis


As more new cells are made in the S. basale, the S. spinosum
layer is pushed up to become the S. granulosum layer.

The cells in the S. granulosum begin to die because they are
now too far from nutrient source (in dermis).

The cells now have a grainy appearance, so this layer
is called the stratum granulosum.


Waxy protein substance only found in the epidermis. It makes up the
nails, hair, and is also in each superficial skin cell.

It can absorb water like a chamois cloth that is used to dry your car, so
keratin swells when soaking wet.

The water evaporates when you dry off, and because of water’s
cohesive abilities, it sticks to itself and pulls more water out of your
body, so soaking in the tub will dry your skin out…unless you put lotion
on right away to block evaporation and keep the water in the
epidermal layers. Lotions will not penetrate to the epidermis or
dermis, just water.



 This layer is only on the palms and soles

 It is just deep to the S. corneum and
superficial to the S. granulosum

 This THIN layer provides protection from
UV radiation.



In this layer, the dead cells fill up with KERATIN.

The cells lose their nucleus and fuse to squamous (flat) sheets,
which are shed from the surface in about 2 weeks. This process is
called desquamation.

The main difference between thick skin and thin skin relates to
the thickness of the Stratum corneum.

It takes about 15-30 days for a cell to move from the stratum

to stratum corneum and another 2 weeks for it to shed

We lose half a million cells per hour; 1.5 grams a day

That can be a major source of dust in the house

Dust allergies are actually from the feces and saliva of dust mites
which eat the dead skin. One house has 3 million poops per day
from dust mites!


The dermis has several important characteristics:
 Composed of connective tissue containing collagen

and elastic

 Connective tissue include bone, cartilage and loose areolar tissue.
 Fibroblasts cells carry out synthesis, maintenance and

replacement of connective tissue.


 Major constituent of fibrous protein gives skin tensile strength.
 Collagen fibers make up 30% wetwt. of

dermis and arranged largely as strands/ bundles lie parallel to
skin surface plan.


Elastin :

 2nd type of protein fibre.

 Makes smaller % and tends to be among collagen bundles.

 Elastin fibres allow skin to deform and return to its original state
once pressure or tension is removed.

Ground Substance :

 Dermal ground substance consists of salt, water and

 Forms complex with protein molecules knowns as proteoglycans.

 Eg: glycosaminoglycans are hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate.

 Hyaluronic acid known to play a vital role in tissue hydration, carries a
large volume of water.


Mast cells :

 2nd major cell type in dermis.

 Found close to small blood

 Responsible for synthesis and
secretion of Heparin

(anticoagulant),Histamine and Prostaglandins (both ‘ve
vasoactive properties)

• Sweat Glands :

 2 distinct types : Eccrine & apocrine glands.

 Apocrine gland : Associated to hair follicles indermis.

 Found in axillae, breast, ear canal. Function not well understood.


Aprocine Gland:
 Under control of sex hormones, like sebaceous gland become active

around puberty, respond to emotional stress.

 Produced in minute quantities
 Expelled by contraction of smooth muscle around aprocine duct, as

milky viscous fluid.

Eccrine Gland :
 Free flowing, salt water secretion produced by about 3 million sweat

gland distributed all over the body.

 Responds to thermal stress.

 Found in palms, soles and axillae respond to emotional stress.
Sweat glands becomes functional only after 12 months of baby’s life
and can produce 3 – 10 litres of sweat per day in an adult


Human skin largest sensory body organ.

Function to serve to maintain an open communication channel
between body and external environment.

External stimuli usually result in sensation as thermal or tactile or
pleasant or unpleasant.

Sensory receptors in skin pass incoming information to brain via nerve
fibres travelling through spinal cord to brain cortex.


Present below dermis.

Layer of fatty or adipose tissue.

Layer cells synthesis and store fat as energy reserve.

Acts as buffer against trauma.

Provides body its contours, whether they are attractive
curves or unwelcome bulges.


• Hair
is a protein
filament that
grows from follicles
found in the dermis, or

• is one of the

• of mammals.
• an important
biomaterial primarily
composed of protein,


Hair is composed of three principal parts:

Cuticle –outer coating composed of overlapping scales

Cortex –protein-rich structure Medulla- central core
around the medullathat contains (may be absent)

The structure of hair has been compared to that of a pencil
with the medulla being the lead, the cortex being the wood
and the cuticle being the paint on the outside.



The cuticle varies in:
• Itsscales,

How many there are per centimeter,
How much theyoverlap,
Their overall shape, and
How much they protrude from the

• Its thickness, and
• Whether or not it contains pigment.

Characteristics of the cuticle may be important in
distinguishing between hairs of different species but are often
not useful in distinguishing betweendifferent people.


The cortex varies in:

• Thickness
• Texture
• Color

•Distribution of the cortex is perhaps
the most important component in
determining from which individual a
humanhair may have come.

•Microscopic examination can also
reveal the condition and shape of
the root and tip.


The medulla may varyin:

• Thickness
• Continuity -one continuous
or broken intopieces
•Opacity -how much lightis
able to
pass through it

•It may also be absent in some Like the cuticle, the medulla can

species. be important for distinguishing
between hairs of different
species, but often does not lend
much important information to
the differentiation between hairs
from different people.


• Hair is composed of the protein keratin, which is also the
primary component of finger and toe nails.

• Humans develop hair follicles during fetal development,
and no new follicles are produced after birth.

• Hair color is mostly the result of pigments, which are
chemical compounds that reflect certain wavelengths
of visible light.


• Hair shape (round or oval) and texture (curly or straight) is
influenced heavily by genes. The physical appearance of hair can
be affected by

nutritional status and intentional
alteration (heat curling, perms,
straightening, etc.)


The body area (head, arm, leg,
back, etc.) from which a hair
originated can be determined by
the sample’s length, shape, size,
color, and other physical


In order to test hair evidence
for nuclear DNA, the root must be
present. The hair may also be
tested using mitochondrial DNA
whether or not theroot ispresent.


The Cuticle of
Human Hair is
rough — which is
why we use


Animals have characteristic cuticle scales that
scientists can use to determine the source of hair
evidence. Human, Cat, Dog, and Mouse
respectively (photo below)


Packaging cleanliness hygiene
and microbial control in
cosmetic manufacturing



• The FD&C Act defines cosmetics by their intended use, as
“articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or sprayed
on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body…for
cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the
appearance” (FD&C Act, sec. 201(i))


What the Law Says About Cosmetic Safety

• Cosmetic products and ingredients, except for color additives,
do not need FDA approval before they go on the market.
However, they must not be “adulterated” or “misbranded.”

• This means they must be safe for consumers when used
according to directions on the label, or in the customary or
expected way, and they must be properly labeled. It also means
they must not be prepared, packed, or stored in a way in which
they may have become contaminated or harmful to health.


How Microorganisms Get into Cosmetics

• Cosmetic firms are legally responsible for making sure their
products are safe. Some of the ways cosmetics may become
contaminated with bacteria or fungi are—

• Contaminated raw materials, water or other ingredients

• Poor manufacturing conditions

• Ingredients that encourage growth of microorganisms, without
an effective preservative system

• Packaging that doesn’t protect a product adequately

• Poor shipping or storage conditions

• Consumer use, such as the need to dip fingers into the product


• The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act itself addresses not only the
safety of cosmetics, but the conditions under which they are prepared,
packed, and held.

• There are guidance no guidelines available on microbiological safety, in
FDA Bacteriological Analytical Manual, a collection of microbiological test
methods and procedures, includes a chapter on cosmetics.

• Microbial contamination depends on a variety of factors, such as how a
cosmetic is formulated, manufactured, stored, and used. Some
microorganisms pose little to no risk of illness or injury to consumers.
Other microorganisms can pose significant risks; such microorganisms
are characterized as “pathogenic.”

• RESTRICTED PATHOGENS There are three main pathogens which are
strictly not allowed in any of the cosmetic products: Pseudomonas
aeruginosa, Staphylococcus Aureus and Candida Albicans They are
considered the main potential pathogens in cosmetic products. It is
generally acknowledged that neither the occurrence of E. coli nor other
members of Enterobacteriaceae are acceptable in cosmetic products.


• Contamination control in cosmetics can be achieved by use of:

• Microbiologically satisfactory raw materials

• Good plant hygiene and manufacturing practices

• Hygienic design

• Validated preservative system



• The raw materials used for production can be a potential source of

• Raw materials for use in cosmetics do not have to be sterile. However,
proper handling is important to reduce the potential for microbial
growth in the materials and to prevent introduction of microorganisms.
For eg: Fats, waxes, and refined oils do not contain sufficient water to
support microbial growth, so they contain relatively few organisms.

• Natural materials such as gums and herbs are exposed to
environmental contamination and/or aqueous processing, so they are
heavily contaminated by a variety of yeasts, molds, and bacteria.

• In the cosmetics industry, some of the more common raw materials to
be contaminated with Bacillus spores include Aloe vera and a variety
of thixotropic agents such as quaternized clays

• Clostridium is another Gram-positive, spore-forming rod. Classic
examples are products associated with shaving and applied to skin


Manufacturing Premises and equipment

• During manufacture, the product can easily become
contaminated by organisms that accumulate in the plant as a
result of faulty or inadequate cleansing.

• Equipment should be designed to facilitate easy cleaning and
disinfection, and inaccessible grooves and dead ends in all
items that come into contact with the product should be avoided
wherever possible.

• Probably the greatest microbial hazard to the product during
manufacture or packaging is from the operators. Operators
should be trained to maintain high standards of personal
hygiene and cleanliness

• Environment / air is another possible source of contamination
needs to be monitored as it contains mainly mold and bacterial
spores, and skin microflora (primarily micrococci).


• Most products are exposed to further contamination during the
filling of containers, cleaning and disinfection of filling
equipment is also important.

• Packaging materials, Containers and closures should be dust-
free and microbiologically clean.


• ISO 22716 gives guidelines for the production, control, storage,
and shipment of cosmetic products. Related to microbial quality
the main requirements are: • Cosmetic GMP regulations must
be followed in all areas of production, for all cosmetic products
and for all businesses (large or small) • Ensure adequate
professional qualifications of the person who is responsible for
the production • Provision of suitable premises • Sufficient staff
with appropriate training • Documentation of the activities and
inspections during production

• Requirements for a good production hygiene Personnel hygiene
§ 3.5.1 of ISO 22716 describes the demands for personnel
hygiene »Hygiene programmes should be established and
adapted to the needs of the plant.


Cleaning and sanitisation of premises and

• For cleaning and disinfection the following items have to be
taken into account: • Premises used for the production should
be maintained in a clean condition • Cleaning and, if necessary,
sanitisation should be carried out to achieve the objective of
protecting each product • Cleaning and, if necessary, sanitising
agents to be used should be specified and effective • There
should be cleaning and, if necessary, sanitisation programmes
corresponding to specific needs of each area • All equipment
should be subject to an appropriate cleaning and, if necessary,
sanitisation programme • Cleaning and sanitising agents should
be specified and effective



• Preservatives are antimicrobial ingredients added to product
formulations to maintain the microbiological safety of the products by
inhibiting the growth of and reducing the amount of microbial

• Preservatives are added to aqueous products to prevent spoilage,
that is, to prolong the shelf life of the product, and to protect the
consumer from the possibility of infection.

• The most common type of preservatives used in cosmetic
formulations are: • Parabens • Formaldehyde releasers •
Isothiazolinoles • Phenoxyethanol • Organic acids eg: Benzoic Acid /
Sodium Benzoate

• To minimise the amount of preservative actives in cosmetics different
approaches are used like • Combinations of preservative actives •
Addition of multifunctional actives to boost the antimicrobial effect •
Addition of chelating agents • Combination of multifunctional actives to
achieve self-preserving systems


• The total amount of preservative is the sum of:
• • The preservative added to the water phase
• • The preservative added to the oil phase
• • The preservative added to the finished product
• • The preservative added to a premix
• • The preservative in the raw materials
• Which and how much preservative is in the raw materials should be

kept traced. If the preservative in the raw material changes the
preservation of the finished product may fail.



• Concentration of Preservative :Effective concentrations of
preservatives range from as little as 0.001% in the case of
organic mercurial compounds to 0.5% or even 1% of such
materials as the weak acids, depending on pH and composition
of the product

• Dissociation and pH :Formulations of cosmetics and toiletries
encompass a wide pH range since microorganisms of one sort
or another are capable of growing between pH 2 and pH 11.
Ideally, a preservative should be effective over this range.

• Partition coefficient

• Succeptibilty to microbial growth

• Interaction between ingredients and preservative.


Schedule M (II) of Drug and Cosmetic rule 1945

• Requirements for the factory premises for manufacture of cosmetics.


1. Location and Surroundings:

2. Buildings:

3. Water supply:

4. Disposal of water:

5. Health clothing and sanitary requirements of the staff:

6. Medical devices:

7. Working benches for the operation of cosmetics:

8. Adequate facilities shall be provided for washing and drying of
glass containers if the same are to be used for packing the



• The specific equipment, area and other requirements
are recommended for the manufacture of: −

Powders, Creams, lotions, emulsions, pastes, cleansing
milks, shampoos, pomade, brilliantine, shaving creams
and hair-oils, Nail Polishes and Nail lacquers, Lipsticks
and Lip-gloss, Depilatories, eye preperations etc.


Specific requirements for manufacturing eye

(a) False ceiling shall be provided wherever required.
(b) Manufacturing area shall be made fly proof. An airlock or an
air curtain shall be provided.
(c) Base used for Kajal shall be sterilized by heating the base at
150 degree C for required time in a separate enclosed area.
(d) The vegetable carbon black powder shall be sterilized in a
drying oven at 120 degree C for required time.
(e) All utensils used for manufacture shall be of stainless steel
and shall be washed with detergent water, antiseptic liquid and
again with distilled water.
(f) Containers employed for ‗Kajal‘ shall be cleaned properly with
bactericidal solution and dried.
(g) Workers shall put on clean overalls and use hand gloves
wherever necessary.



• Cosmetics Formulation Manufacturing and Quality
Control by P. P. Sharma

• Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940, Drugs and Cosmetics
Rules, 1945