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Dental care cosmetics



A toothpaste or dentifrice is a substance used with a toothbrush
for the purpose of cleaning the accessible surfaces of the teeth.


• Cleaning

• Polishing

• Removal of stains

• Reduce incidence of tooth decay

• Reduction of oralmalodors 2


 The major oral care problems that concern consumers can be
broadly categorized as medical or cosmetic.

 Medical concerns for oral health include dental decay and gum
disease (both associated with distinct pathogenic dental plaque
floras), dental hypersensitivity, and dry mouth.

 Cosmetic concerns include dental staining and tooth whitening,
oral malodor, and dental calculus.


 Dental plaque : certain populations of microorganisms in dental
plaque exhibit characteristics that play a major role in the
causation of dental decay and gum disease.

 Dental calculus which is considered a cosmetic issue and
incidence of periodontal disease. calculus irritates the gingival
tissues and encourages the formation of a pocket between
tooth and gingivae, in which food debris and bacteria may

 Dental caries, commonly known as tooth decay, is a disease that
is widely distributed worldwide and is associated with more
frequent consumption of foods containing sugars or refined

 Dental erosion is the dissolution of enamel and dentine by acid of
either intrinsic or external origin.


How do teeth decay?
Tooth decay begins when the outer surface of the tooth is
attacked by acid. The acid is produced by bacteria which live on
the surfaces of the teeth as a layer called plaque. When foods or
drinks containing sugars enter the mouth, the bacteria within the
plaque rapidly converts the sugars into acid. The plaque can
hold the acid in contact with the tooth surface for up to 2 hours
before it is neutralized by saliva.

During the time that the plaque is acidic, some of the calcium
and phosphate minerals, of which enamel is largely composed,
are dissolved out of the enamel into the plaque. This process is
called demineralisation.


Dentifrices Ingredients

Abrasives 20%- Solid, insoluble particles Aluminium oxide
40% Causingabrasion Calciumpyrophosphate

Remove debris and Carbonates like sodium
residual stain from teeth bicarbonate, calcium

carbonate, Silica

Binders 2% To provideconsistency Polymers like
and shape. CarboxymethylCellulose

Alginate ,Gums

Humectants 20%- Used in toothpaste to Glycerine
40% prevent loss of waterand Sorbitol

subsequent hardening of Polyethylene glycol
the product upon Mannitol
exposure to air. Propylene glycol 3


time 2%each Improve taste Sweeteners: sodium
and Flavors of toothpaste saccharin, sorbitol, mannitol,

Flavours: peppermint,

Surfactants 1%-2% Producefoam Sodium Lauryl Sulfate
and aid in the Sodium N-Lauryl
removal of Polyethylene glycol (PEG)

Fluoride Adults: Increases Sodium fluoride
actives 1000- resistance to Sodium

1450ppm enamel monofluorophosphate
Children:<10 solubility. Stannous fluoride

Preservatives <1% Prevent the Alcohols, sodium benzoate,
growth of
organisms 4


Different types ofToothpastes/gels
Anti-Caries / Cavity Sodium fluoride contain fluoride to Eg. Colgate cavity
Protection and sodium stop tooth enamel protection
toothpastes monofluorophosp decalcificationand

hate protect teeth from
tooth decay and

Plaque & Gingivitis Sodium Lauryl antibacterial and Eg. Crest-pro-health
Prevention Sulphate, Triclosane, prevent the clinical gum
toothpastes Zinc and Stannous formation ofdental protection

ions. plaque.

ToothWhitening Papain, have either higher Eg. Colgate Optical
toothpastes Dimethicone abrasion valuethan White and Colgate

normal toothpastes Pro-clinical White.
to mechanically
remove food,
smoking and other
stains from teeth. 5


Sensitivity Potassium contain de- Eg. Colgate
toothpaste nitrate, sensitising agentsto sensitive,

strontium relief those with Sensodyne
chloride, tooth sensitivity by
potassium closing the dentinal
citrate tubules.

TartarControl Pyrophosphates reduce new tartar Eg. Colgate tartar
toothpastes build-up (but they protection with

can’t remove the whitening
existing tartar).

Fresh Breath Peppermint, enhanceflavoring Eg. Colgate Max-
toothpastes spearmint, agents along with fresh

menthol antibacterials to
fight halitosis 9



Method: – 1
The binder, prewetted with the humectant, it is disperse in
liquid portion containing the saccharin and preservative
and allow swelling to form a homogeneous gel. The
swelling may be accelerated by heat and agitation. The
solid abrasive is added slowly to homogeneous gel and
mixed in mixer until a paste formed. The flavour and
detergent are added last and distributed uniformly.
Excessive, aeration, particularly in the presence of
detergent, should be avoided. The paste can then be
milled, deairated and tubed.


Method: – 2
The binder is premixed with solid abrasive, which is then
mixed with the liquid phase, containing humectant,
preservative and sweetener into a mixer. After formation of
homogeneous paste, the flavour and detergent are
added, mixed, milled deairated and tubed



– considered tobe the most effective caries-inhibiting agent,
and almost all toothpastes today contain fluoride in one
form or theother

– The most common form is sodium fluoride (NaF), but
mono-fluoro-phosphate (MFP) and stannous fluoride (SnF)
are also used

– Fluoride is most beneficial when the mouth is notrinsed
with water after tooth brushing. In this way a bigger
amount of fluoride is retained in the oral cavity 1


There are three main theories considering the positive action of

fluoride in the prevention ofcaries:


The action of fluoride onenamel
• Enamel consists primarily of a calcium-phosphate-based

crystalline mineral called hydroxyapatite(HAP).

• Fluoride is incorporated into the solid crystal lattice to form
fluorohydroxyapatite (FAP). This form of enamel is harder
than the naturally occurring HAP and more resistant todecay.


Positive action of fluoride in the prevention
of caries:

• the most important anti-caries effect is claimed to be due to
the formation of calcium fluoride (CaF2) in plaque and on the
enamel surface during and after rinsing or brushing with

• CaF2 serves as a fluoride reservoir.

• When the pH drops, fluoride and calcium are released into the
plaque fluid.

• Fluoride diffuses with the acid from plaque into the enamel
pores and forms fluoroapatite (FAP).

• FAP incorporated in the enamel surface is more resistant to a
subsequent acid attack.



• Identification of ingredients
• Estimation of their contents

Abrasiveness Various tests have been designed and
reported over the year, mostly on the set of extracted teeth.
The teeth were mechanically brushed with pastes or
powders and then the effects were studied by observation,
mechanical or other means. Abrasive character normally
depended on the particle size. So, study of particle size can
also give such idea.


Particle size
This can be determined by microscopic study of the
particles or by sieving or other means.

Cleansing property
This is studied by measuring the change in the
reflectance character of a lacquer coating on the
polyester film caused by brushing with a tooth cleanser
(paste or powder). Also an in vivo test has been
suggested in which teeth were brushed for two weeks
and condition of teeth was assessed before and after
use with the help of photo graphs.



It is important that the product , paste, should maintain
the consistency to enable the product press out from
the container. Study of viscosity is essential for this.
Rheology of powders is also important for proper flow of
the powder from the container.

pH of the product

pH of the dispersion of 10 % of the product in water is
determined by PH meter.


Foaming character

This test is specially required for foam forming tooth
pastes or tooth powders. Specific amount of product
can be mixed with specific amount of water and to be
shaken. The foam thus formed is studied for its nature,
stability, washability.

Limit test for arsenic and lead

This is very important as these are highly toxic metals.
Specific tests are there to estimate these two metals;
products may not have excess of such metals.


Volatile matters and moisture

A specific amount of the product required to be taken in
a dish and drying is to be done till constant weight. Loss of
weight will indicate percentage of moisture and volatile

Effect of special ingredients

Special test should be done for the special ingredients if
any, like antiseptics, enzymes, etc. for each one special
and specific test are to be done.


Cleansing Agents
Denture cleaner is a variety of products designed to safely remove
stains, deposits, & debris from the surface of dental prostheses,
by means of immersion or brushing with a denture brush & paste.

Aims :

•Their main use to control the growth of microorganisms on the

•Especially Candida albicans thereby preventing denture related
stomatitis. When dentures are worn in the mouth, a biofilm
develops which may be similar to dental plaque.


Polishing Materials
One main requirement of good dentifrices is to have polishing effect on
the cleaned teeth.

It is possible to achieve the polishing effect by abrasion action. The
overall effect provides whiteness to the teeth. Tooth polishing is the act
of smoothing the surface .


Smooth polish, shine

Remove foreign materials

Remove extrinsic stain

Avoid burning or scorching acrylies

Commonly used polishing agents :

•Aluminum oxide

•Tin oxide

•Zirconium silicate




• Detergents are also known as surfactant or surface
active agent, they are able to break through the tension
at the surface of a liquid.

• Tooth cleaning is essentially a detergent process and all
tooth paste incorporate a surface active agent.

• Generally surface active agents lower the surface
tension, penetrate, & loosen surface deposits & emulsify
or suspend the debris which dentifrices remove the


Foaming agents

Foaming agent :

•Those are materials that facilitates formation of foam
such as a surfactant or a blowing agent .

Sources :

•Sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate

•Sodium ricinoleate & sodium sulphoricinoleate.

•Other detergents.




Humectants are hygrosscopic materials that have the properties of
absorbing water vapor from moist air until a certain degree of
dilution is attained .

Examples: Glycerin, sorbitol, Xylitol etc.


Affect taste perception

80% level produce clear translucent toothpaste

(20-80)% produce opaque toothpaste

Function :

Used to maintain a consistent plaque.

Retain water in the tooth paste.


Tooth Paste
• A toothpaste is a substance used with a toothbrush for the

purpose of cleaning accessible surfaces of the teeth.

Purposes :



removal of stains

Advantages :

Processing time is dramatically reduced

Rapid in corporation & wetting out of power

Greatly improved product quality, consistency & stability


Various popular brands of Toothpaste..


Toothpaste Formulation


Flavoring Material
•Materials that gives another substance flavor, altering the
characteristics of the solute are termed as flavoring material. The flavor
of a toothpaste is one of the most important characteristics influencing
consumer acceptance. It is used in 1-1.5%.


•Natural flavoring material: Most used natural flavoring materials are
essential oils, herbs ,spices etc.

•Artificial flavoring material:

– Amyl acetate: Banana flavoring

– Ethyl butyrate: Pineapple flavoring.

– Limonene: Orange flavoring.


•Should leave a fresh sensation in the mouth and

a lasting awareness that the mouth has been



Colors are sometimes added to toothpastes. This must be chosen with
care as color fading, particularly at the nozzole, is not uncommon. The
range of colors available is now restricted by EEC regulations.

Example: coloring agents are red, green (D&C #5), and blue. Titanium
dioxide is used to make toothpaste white.

Binding material:

•A binding material is a substance that holds or draws other materials
together mechanically, chemically or as an adhesive to form a cohesive

Function of binder:
•It is used to stabilize toothpaste formulation to prevent

separation of the solid and liquid.


•Normal polymer: Xanthum gum
•Synthetic polymer: Carboxy methyl cellulose,

methyl cellulose etc.


Liquid Dentifrices

• A substance used with a toothbrush for the purpose of
cleaning the accessible surfaces of teeth. Dentifrices are
applied as powder or pastes(liquid form).

Manufacture of liquid dentifrice (toothpaste):

Two basic processes are involved in toothpaste

The hydration of gelling agent and

The dispersion of the abrasive in the gel.

• The hydration of the gel is normally done by adding the
solid gelling agent to the glycerin and part of the water
under conditions of vigorous agitation.

• It is not necessary to heat the mixture if CMC is used,
heating to 60 degree Celsius is usual with viscarin –
type gelling agents.


• Over stirring of CMdC gels results in an irreversible diminution of the

viscosity and should be avoided.
• Gel hydration can be continuous by means of an eductor in which the

gel powder is introduced gradually into a stream of cold water which
is then forced through a nozzle.

• The powder addition may be done in a variety of types of vessels.

• The final mixing is always done under the vacuum.

• The active ingredients ,sweetener and preservatives are added and

• The abrasive is then added. This may be supplied as

slurry .

• Flavoring and coloring agents are added.
• The detergent and flavor are added last under

slow agitation to minimize foaming and to reduce

loss of flavor.


Tooth Powder
Tooth Powder

• Tooth powder is mixture of a variety of ingredients to replace
toothpaste as a cleaning substance. It often contains baking
soda, herbs like cloves, mint, or cinnamon, and an artificial
sweetener for taste.


Ingredients Percent (%)

Precipitated calcium 95.0

Sodium palmitate 5.0

Flavor, sweetener q.s.


Manufacture of tooth powder:

• The manufacture of toothpowder is very simple. Sweeteners
and flavors, together with a little alcohol if desired, are made
into a pre-mix concentrate with part of the abrasive powder.
This is then mixed with the rest of the powders in a
conventional powder mixer.



• Mouthwash is an alcoholic solution of flavoring oils &
used for removing bad odor to give a clean refreshing
feeling in the mouth.


Formulation of Mouthwash
Ingredients Percent (%)

Antiseptic 0.05-0.5

Astringent 0.005-0.5

Water 60-90
Ethyl alcohol 10-30

Detergent 0.1-1.0
Na-lauryl sulphate
Preservative 20
Sorbitol 70%

Flavor 0.02-0.2
Clove oil
Cinnamon oil

Color(FDA colors) q.s


Manufacture of mouthwash: Mouthwash is made via an
batch process in an area of the manufacturing plant called
compounding. Depending on the size of the batch and the
number of raw materials, a mouthwash can take one to
three hours to make. Mouthwash is produced by following
specific formula instructions-

• The raw materials are delivered to compounding area by
fork lift trucks.

• Compounders add them to the main batch tank where they
are thoroughly mixed.


 Depending on the formula instructions, the batch is heated and
• cooled to get the raw materials to rapidly combine.

Materials which are used in large quantities such as alcohol or
• water are then pumped directly into the tank. This is done

by simply setting computer controls to the appropriate
amount and pushing a button.

Computer also control the mixing speed and temperature of

the batch.



 Harry’s Cosmeticology, ninth edition, pg.194