Good Manufacturing Practice : GMPs EXPLAINED in Brief PDF

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Good Manufacturing Practice
(“GMP”) Compliance:


Good Manufacturing Practice

 Establishes minimum GMP for methods
to be used, and the facilities or controls to
be used for, the manufacture, processing,
packing or holding of a drug to assure
that the drug is:
 Safe
 Has the appropriate identity and strength
 Meets quality and purity characteristics

03/22/15 21 C.F.R. 210 awnwdw


cGMP Violations —
Severe Consequences

Product is “adulterated”

Shutdown of manufacturing facility

Seizure of product

Recall product

Front page press coverage

Competitive disadvantage



Severe Consequences (cont.)

GMP Hold on product applications
 International sites

Injunction / Consent decree
 Schering Plough ($500 Million)
 Abbott Laboratories ($100 Million)
 Wyeth–Ayerst Laboratories ($30 Million)
 Individual Defendants

Criminal Investigations and Indictments

03/22/15  Unitedw Swtwa.Pthearsm eInxfo preedila.. cKoming


cGMP: Current Trends
 21st Century: Risk-Based Approach

 Risk-based assessment
 Up-to-date Science-based policies and standards

• Part 11
 Integrated Systems approach

• Quality / Facilities and Equipment / Materials /
Production / Packaging and Labeling / Laboratory

 International cooperation
• ICH: International Conference on Harmonisation

 Proposed amendments regarding validation

and cross-contamination


cGMP: The Basics

 Quality Control
 Product meets specifications

 Quality Assurance
 Systems ensure control and consistency
 Validation, validation, validation

 Documentation
 If it is not documented, it did not happen



cGMP: Raw Materials

 Active ingredients
 Excipients
 Audit suppliers on regular basis

 Before entering into contract, review regulatory

 Monitor regulatory compliance

 Test incoming raw material



cGMP: Buildings and Facilities

 Separate or defined areas as are necessary
to prevent contamination or mixups

 Air filtration systems (HVAC) in
production areas

 Sanitation

21 C.F.R. 211.42-58


cGMP: Production and Process
Controls (“SOPs”)

Written production and process control
procedures shall be followed in manufacturing and
shall be documented at the time of performance.
Any deviation from these procedures shall be
recorded and explained or justified.

21 C.F.R. 211.100



cGMP: In Process Testing

 Must have written procedures and testing of product
while being manufactured to assure batch uniformity
and integrity

 Control procedures shall be established to monitor
output and to validate manufacturing processes that
could cause variability

21 C.F.R. 211.110



cGMP: Expiration Dating

 To assure that a drug  Expiration dates shall be
product meets applicable related to any storage
standards of identity, conditions stated on the
strength, quality and labeling, as determined by
purity at the time of use, it stability studies described
shall bear an expiration in Section 211.166.
date determined by
appropriate stability 21 C.F.R. 211.137 (b)
testing described in
Section 211.166.

21 C.F.R. 211.137 (a)


cGMP: Packaging and Labeling

 Company must have written procedures
designed to assure that correct labels, labeling
and packaging materials are used for drug
products; such written procedures shall be

 Label mix ups have been a major reason for
drug product recalls.

21 C.F.R. 211.130


cGMP: Laboratory Controls

 Testing and release for distribution

 For each batch of drug product, there shall be
laboratory determination of satisfactory
conformance to final specifications for the drug
product, including the identity and strength of each
active ingredient prior to release.

 There shall be appropriate laboratory testing, as
necessary, of each batch required to be free of
objectionable microorganisms.

21 C.F.R. 211.165 (a) & (b)


cGMP: Stability Testing

A written testing program designed to
assess stability characteristics is
required. Stability testing results must
be used in determining storage
conditions and expiration dates.

21 C.F.R. 211.166



cGMP: Production Record

 Production and control records shall be reviewed
and approved by the quality control unit to
determine compliance with all established,
approved written procedures before a batch is
released or distributed.

 Product Impact Assessment

 Trend Analysis

 Distributed Product

03/2 2 / 1 521 C.F.R. 211.192


cGMP: Deviation Investigations

 Any unexplained discrepancy or the failure of a batch
or any of its components to meet any of its
specifications must be investigated whether or not the
batch has already been distributed.

 Investigate other batches of same drug product

 Investigate other drug products that
may have been associated with the
specific failure or discrepancy

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cGMP: Deviation Investigations

 Documenting the Investigation is Critical
 Hypotheses should be scientifically based
 Subject matter experts should be consulted

throughout the investigation, including the initial
identification of hypotheses

 Once a hypothesis is identified, it must be

 All hypotheses should be validated or invalidated



cGMP: Deviation Investigations

 Corrective and Preventative Action Program
 As part of deviation investigations…
 Root cause identification and definitive corrective

• Company Program / System should audit:

– Timeliness of corrective / preventative actions
– Effectiveness of actions
– Documentation

• Example:
– Environmental monitoring/Cleaning



cGMP: Deviation Investigations

 Corrective and Preventative Action Program (cont.)
 After an FDA inspection…
 Establish scientifically sound corrective and

preventative actions
• Realistic timeframes

 Ensure compliance with commitments to FDA
• Systems
• Specific Issues

– E.g., Change Control / Training



cGMP: Responsibility and
Authority of Quality Control

 Quality control unit “shall have the responsibility and
authority to approve or reject all components, drug
product containers, closures, in-process materials,
packaging material, labeling, and drug products, and
the authority to review production records to assure
that no errors have occurred or, if errors have
occurred, that they have been fully investigated. The
quality control unit shall be responsible for approving
or rejecting drug products manufactured, processed,
packed, or held under contract by another company.”

0 32/212/ 1C5 FR 211.22(a)


cGMP: Complaints

 Written procedures describing the handling of
all written and oral complaints

 Review by Quality Control unit
 Possible failure to meet any specification
 Determine need for deviation investigation
 Adverse Drug Experience report assessment

 Documentation of complaint and investigation
or reason for not investigating

03/222/115 C.F.R. 211.198


cGMP: Records and Reports

Contemporaneous documentation critical
 Laboratory and production records
 Trending analysis

Data Integrity

Internal review: OOS results, complaints, R&D

External review: FDA inspections, business deals
(due diligence), and products liability cases



cGMP: Reports (cont.)

 Field Alert Reports § 314.81(b)(1)
 Labeling
 Failure to meet specifications — STABILITY FAILURES
 Within 3 working days of receipt
 Warner Lambert criminal case

 Adverse Drug Experience Reports § 314.80
 ASAP but no later than 15 calendar days of initial receipt
 Foreign and domestic

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cGMP: Auditing

 Independent Audit Group
 Resources
 Authority

 Global Approach – Harmonization of Quality

 Audit priority systems / specific issues

 Follow-up audits



Good Manufacturing Practice
(“GMP”) Compliance:

Presented by

Raymond A. Bonner
Nathan C. Sheers

Washington, D.C.

(202) 736-8000

The Fourth Annual Pharmaceutical

Regulatory and Compliance Congress
and Best Practices Forum

November 13, 2003