GPAT companion Pearson 5th edition textbook

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Umang Shah

Ashok Akabari

Amit Kumar Baser

Ashish Patel


‑ ­­






Complete Companion for GPAT and Other Entrance Examination in Pharmacy in

its Fifth edition, is a sincere attempt to produce comprehensive course material for the aspirants.

The book contains six units, where the first four units are covering major sections of pharmaceutics,






pharmacology, pharmaceutical chemistry, and pharmacognosy. Unit five contains all important information

regarding NIPER JEE examination—syllabus, preparation guidelines, and five mock test papers particularly

designed for NIPER JEE inline with previous years’ examination. At the end, previous year papers from GPAT,

GPSC and UPSC have also been provided as unit six.

Each chapter of the book is supported with highlighted definitions, theoretical explanations with diagrams, tabular

data for effective run-through. Chapter-end exercises are graded from simple to moderate to difficult level as per

the current examination trend.








   ­ Updated as per latest examination pattern          Also useful for various government






    Includes GPAT 2020 Question paper with solution      Pharmacist, Drug Inspector and Assistant

    Provides over 5000 practice questions for            Professor Recruitment Examinations





                                                                                                                               Cover Image:

      quick revision                                     All state Post Graduate Common Entrance

    Incorporates previous years’ solved papers –         Test (PGCET) examinations

      GPAT, GPSC and UPSC examination’s Drug             NIPER-JEE and Manipal University and

      Inspector; government lecturer and                  other university PG admission entrance

      pharmacist’s examinations                           examinations




                                                                                             MRP Inclusive

                                                                                               of all Taxes     `899.00                                                                           ­‑­‑­‑
‑ ­­

                                                                                                                                                                       Shah I Akabari

                                                                                                                                                                        Baser I Patel






                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Umang Shah I Ashok Akabari

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Amit Kumar Baser I Ashish Patel


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                   Umang Shah I Ashok Akabari

                 Amit Kumar Baser I Ashish Patel


Copyright © 2020 Pearson India Education Services Pvt. Ltd


Published by Pearson India Education Services Pvt. Ltd, CIN: U72200TN2005PTC057128.


No part of this eBook may be used or reproduced in any manner whatsoever without the publisher’s

prior written consent.


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ISBN 978-93-539-4624-1

eISBN 978-93-539-4776-7

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website:, Email: [email protected]




Syllabus for GPAT                         xii

About the Examination                  xxviii

Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test – 2020  xxix



UNIT 1: PHARMACEUTICS                                            Formulation of Tablets               1.50

                                                                 Capsule                              1.65

Chapter 1 Physical Pharmaceutics                1.3

                                                                 Parenterals                          1.67

          Micromeritics and Powder Rheology     1.3

                                                                 Aerosols                             1.72

          Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon    1.9

                                                                 Sterilization and Disinfectants      1.74

          Rheology                             1.13

                                                                 Controlled Drug Delivery System      1.78

          State of Matter                      1.16

                                                       Chapter 4 Dispensing Pharmacy                  1.93

          Colloids                             1.17

                                                                 Pharmaceutical Calculation           1.93

          Diffusion                            1.19

                                                                 Microencapsulation                   1.96

Chapter 2 Pharmaceutical Engineering

           (Unit Operation)                    1.24             Liquid and Semisolid Dosage Forms    1.97

          Size Reduction                       1.24             Drug Incompatibility                1.102

          Size Separation                      1.25   Chapter 5 Biopharmaceutics                    1.110

          Drying                               1.25             Absorption of Drug                  1.110

          Crystallization                      1.29             Theories of Dissolution             1.111

          Evaporation                          1.30             Pharmacokinetic Models              1.116

          Mixing                               1.30             Physiologic Model                   1.116

          Filtration                           1.31             Michaelis Menten Equation           1.123

          Centrifugation                       1.32             In-Vitro In-Vivo Correlation        1.126

          Heat and Mass Transfer               1.33   Chapter 6 Jurisprudence                       1.133

          Distillation                         1.33   Chapter 7 Cosmetics Preparation               1.142

          Flow of Fluids                       1.34             Cosmetics                           1.142

          Extraction                           1.35   Chapter 8 Microbiology                        1.152

Chapter 3 Pharmaceutical Technology and Modern                  Definitions                         1.152

           Pharmaceutics1.41                                    Chemical Nature of Immunogens       1.152

          Preformulation                       1.41   Immunoglobulins–Structure and

          Tablet                               1.49     Function1.153


viii    Contents



             Immunity                             1.155              Antiviral Agents                   2.59

Classification and Identification of                                Anti-Herpes Agent                  2.60

  Bacteria1.158                                                      Chemotherapy of Cancer             2.61

             Staining Methods in Microbiology     1.159   Chapter 6    Therapeutic Aspect of Inflammatory

             Few Important Assay                  1.160              Disorders2.72

             Genetic Recombination in Bacteria    1.161         Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory

                                                                      Drugs and Antipyretic–Analgesics   2.72

             Antibiotics—Microbial Assays         1.162

                                                                      Drugs for Cough                    2.73

                                                                      Asthma                             2.74

UNIT 2: PHARMACOLOGY                                                  Eicosanoids                        2.75

                                                           Chapter 7      Drugs Acting on Cardio-Vascular

Chapter 1 Basic Pharmacology                       2.3


   Pharmacology and Routes of

                                                                      Anti Hypertensive Drugs            2.80


                                                                      Drugs used to treat CHF            2.81

             Pharmacokinetics                       2.4

                                                                      Anti-Anginal Drugs                 2.83

             Pharmacodynamics                       2.6

                                                                      Anti-Arrhythmic Agent              2.84

Chapter 2 Autonomic Nervous System                2.11

                                                                 Drugs Affecting Coagulation,

             Antiadrenergic Drugs                  2.17              Bleeding time and Thrombosis       2.87

Chapter 3 Endocrine Pharmacology                  2.23               Agents used in Hyperlipidemia      2.90

             Anterior Pituitary Hormones           2.23              Diuretics                          2.91

             Oxytocin and Drug Acting on Uterus    2.25   Chapter 8      Drugs for Gastrointestinal Tract

             Thyroid and Parathyroid Hormones      2.25              Disorder2.101

             Oral Hypoglycaemics                   2.28              Drugs for Peptic Ulcer            2.101

Chapter 4 Central Nervous System                  2.34               Emetics and Antiemetics           2.102

                                                           Chapter 9 Pharmacological Drugs

             Sedative Hypnotics                    2.34


             Antiepileptic Drugs                   2.35

                                                                 Drugs Acting at Autonomic Nervous

             Antiepileptic Drugs                   2.36              System2.106

             Anti Parkinson’s Drugs                2.37              Cardio-Vascular Drugs             2.106

Chapter 5   Chemotherapy and Chemotherapy                              Diuretics                         2.107

           of Cancer                              2.46         Histamine, Serotonin and Ergot

  Beta Lactam Antibiotics             2.46                           Alkaloids2.107

  Chloramphenicol                     2.48                           Vasoactive Peptide                2.107

  Tetracycline                        2.48                           Prostaglandins and Eicosanoids    2.107

  Aminoglycoside Antibiotics          2.49                           Anti-asthmatic Drugs              2.107

  Macrolides and others Antibiotics   2.49                           Drugs Acting at CNS               2.107

  Other Antibiotics                   2.50                      Drugs Acting on Blood, Inflammation

  Sulfonamides                        2.51                           and Gout                          2.109

  Antitubercular Drugs                2.52                           Endocrine Drugs                   2.109

  Antileprotic Drugs                  2.53                           Chemotherapy                      2.110

  Antifungal Drugs                    2.54                           Anti Cancer Drugs                 2.112

  Antihelmintics                      2.55                           Immunosuppresants                 2.112

      Anti Amoebic and other Antiprotozoal                                Immunostimulators                 2.112

  Drugs2.58                                                     Drugs used in Gastrointestinal

  Drug for Leishmaniasis              2.59                           Disorders2.112


                                                                                            Contents    ix



UNIT 3: PHARMACEUTICAL                                        Terpenoids                     4.8

         CHEMISTRY                                             Plant hormone                  4.8

                                                               Enzymes                      4.16

Chapter 1 Physical Chemistry                 3.3

                                                               Papain                       4.16

          Thermodynamic and Energetics       3.3              Bromelain                    4.16

          Kinetics of a Reaction             3.6              Malt Extract                 4.17

      Kinetic Theory of Gases and Solution                         Streptokinase                4.17

          Chemistry3.9                                        Urokinase                    4.17

      Methods of Expressing the Concentration                      Hyaluronidase                4.17

          of a Solution                     3.13

                                                               Serratiopeptidase            4.18

          Electrochemistry                  3.16              Gelatin                      4.18

          Acid-Base and Ionic Equilibrium   3.18   Chapter 2 Drug Containing Alkaloids     4.23

          Radioactivity                     3.22              Alkaloidal Drugs Description 4.23

Chapter 2 Organic Chemistry                3.27    Chapter 3 Drug Containing Glycosides    4.33

          Atomic Structure                  3.27              Glycosides Drugs Description 4.33

Chapter 3 Analytical Chemistry             3.90         Microscopy and Adulteration of

          Pharmaceutical Analysis           3.90              Glycosides4.36

Chapter 4 Biochemistry                    3.150    Chapter 4 Drug Containing Terpenoids    4.45

          Carbohydrates                   3.150               Terpenoid Drugs Description  4.45

      Important Biochemistry Pathway                         Microscopy and Adulteration

          (Cycle)3.166                                        of Terpenoids                4.47

Chapter 5 Medicinal Chemistry             3.188    Chapter 5      Drug Containing Carbohydrate,

          Drugs Acting on ANS             3.188               Resin and Tannin             4.55

          Chemotherapy                    3.219               Drug Containing Carbohydrate 4.55

          Cephalosporin                   3.222               Drug Containing Resin        4.57

          Macrolide Antibiotics           3.222               Tannin                       4.59

          Chloramphenicol                 3.223

          Aminoglycoside                  3.224    UNIT 5: NIPER Special

          Steroids                        3.240

                                                    NIPER – Seats Matrix                                5.3

Chapter 6 Inorganic Chemistry             3.279

                                                       Master Programme for 2016–2017                   5.3

          Topical Preparation             3.279

                                                    NIPER JEE – Examination Syllabus                    5.6

          Inorganic Gases                 3.280

                                                    NIPER Special                                      5.11

          Gastro Intestine Agents         3.281

                                                      Isosteres                                        5.11

          Protective and Adsorbents       3.281

                                                       Therma Method of Analysis                       5.14

          Saline Cathartics               3.281

                                                      Instrument                                       5.14

          Acid Base and Buffers           3.282

                                                       Major Regulatory Agencies World Wide            5.27

          Miscellaneous Agent             3.283

                                                    NIPER JEE – Question Paper I                       5.40

                                                    NIPER JEE – Question Paper II                      5.46

UNIT 4: PHARMACOGNOSY                               NIPER JEE – Question Paper III                     5.52

Chapter 1 Introduction to Pharmacognosy      4.3   NIPER JEE – Question Paper IV                      5.58

          Alkaloids                          4.3   NIPER JEE – Question Paper V                       5.64

          Glycosides                         4.7   Some Tips for Preparation of NIPER JEE and GPAT    5.70


x     Contents



UNIT 6: Previous Years’ Solved                       Part 2


                                                      1. L. M. College of Pharmacy, Gujarat (Government

Part 1                                                    of Gujarat) Assistant Professor Recruitment

                                                          Examination Question Paper 2016               6.50

  1. Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test – 2019 6.4   2. ESIC Pharmacist (Employees State Insurance
  2. Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test – 2018 6.13       Corporation -Allopathic) Recruitment Question
  3. Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test – 2017 6.23       Paper 2016                                    6.56
  4. Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test – 2012 6.33   3. UPSC Drug Inspector Examination Paper 2011     6.62

                                                      4. Gujarat Government Lecturer Examination

                                                          in Degree/Diploma Pharmacy College-Gpsc


  1. Gujarat Drug Inspector Exam Paper—GPSC 2010 6.77




The Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT) is an online national level entrance examination for admission into all post

graduate pharmacy programs conducted by National Testing Agency (NTA) since 2018. NTA is an autonomous and self-

sustained premier testing organization for major entrance examinations in higher educational institutions. [Earlier GPAT

was approved and conducted by the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE)].

     This examination is usually conducted annually for admission to the postgraduate courses in the affiliated institutes

of AICTE and University Grants Commission (UGC). The GPAT score is also recommended for appearing in the

National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER) examination and Ph.D. Programmes in various


     Complete Companion for GPAT and Other Entrance Examination in Pharmacy in its fifth edition, is a sincere

accomplishment to produce comprehensive course material for the aspirants. The book contains six units, where the first

four units are covering major sections of pharmaceutics, pharmacology, pharmaceutical chemistry, and pharma cognosy.

Unit five contains all important information regarding NIPER JEE examination—syllabus, preparation guidelines, and five

mock test papers particularly designed for NIPER JEE in line with previous years’ examination. All previous years’ solved

papers from GPAT, GPSC and UPSC examination’s Drug Inspector; government lecturer and pharmacist’s examination are

included in unit six. GPAT 2020 solved question papers are included in front matter of the book. Five updated mock-tests

have been uploaded online ( for further practice. Each chapter of the book

is supported with highlighted definitions, theoretical explanations with diagrams, tabular data for effective preparations.

Chapter-end exercises are graded from simple to moderate to difficult as per the previous years’ questions from GPAT,


     This book is also useful for various entrance examinations such as Gujarat Public Service Commission (GPSC),

­Maharashtra CET (MHCET); Manipal University, and Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) examinations for Drug

 Inspector; government lectureship.

     We hope this book will help students understand the concepts and enable them to solve maximum questions in

 minimum time.

     Finally, we wish all the very best to every student preparing for the GPAT examination.

                                                                                                             Umang Shah

                                                                                                           Ashok Akabari

                                                                                                               Amit Baser

                                                                                                              Ashish Patel


Syllabus for GPAT




Introduction to physical pharmacy                                                                    Refer Unit 1: Chapter 1

  • Matter, Properties of Matter:

      State of matter, change in the state of matter, latent heats and vapor pressure, sublimation critical point, eutectic

  mixtures, gases, aerosols-inhalers, relative humidity, liquid. Complexes, liquid crystals, glassy state, solids- crystalline,

  amorphous and polymorphism.

  • Micromeretics and Powder Rheology:

      Particle size and distribution, average particle size, number and weight distribution, particle number, methods for

  determining particle volume, methods of determining particle size- optical microscopy, sieving, sedimentation;

  measurements of particle shape, specific surface area; methods for determining surface area; permeability, adsorption,

  derived properties of powders, porosity, packing arrangement, densities, bulkiness & flow properties.

  • Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon:

      Liquid interface, surface and interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface and interfacial tensions,

  spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB classification, solubilization,

  detergency, adsorption at solid interfaces, solid-gas and solid- liquid interfaces, complex films, electrical properties of


  • Viscosity and Rheology:

      Newtonian systems, Law of flow, kinematic viscosity, effect of temperature; non-newtonian systems: pseudoplastic,

  dilatant, plastic; thixotropy, thixotropy in formulation, negative thixotropy, determination of viscosity, capillary, falling

  ball, rotational viscometers.

  • Dispersion Systems:

      Colloidal dispersions: Definition, types, properties of colloids, protective colloids, applications of colloids in

  pharmacy; Suspensions and Emulsions: Interfacial properties of suspended particles, settling in suspensions, theory of

  sedimentation, effect of Brownian motion, sedimentation of flocculated particles, sedimentation parameters, wetting

  of particles, controlled flocculation, flocculation in structured vehicles, rheological considerations; Emulsions-types,

  theories, physical stability.

  • Complexation:

  Classification of complexes, methods of preparation, analysis, & applications.

  • Kinetics and Drug Stability:

      General considerations & concepts, half-life determination, Influence of temperature, light, solvent, catalytic species

  and other factors, Accelerated stability study, expiration dating.


                                                                                                Syllabus   for   GPAT    xiii



Importance of microbiology in pharmacy                                                             Refer Unit 1: Chapter 8

  • Structure of Bacterial Cell; Classification of microbes and their taxonomy:

  Actinomycetes, bacteria, rickettsiae, spirochetes and viruses.

  • Identification of Microbes:

      Stains and types of staining techniques, electron microscopy; Nutrition, cultivation, isolation of bacteria, actinomycetes,

  fungi, viruses, etc; microbial genetics and variation.

  • Control of Microbes by Physical and Chemical Methods:

  Disinfection, factors influencing disinfectants, dynamics of disinfection, disinfectants and antiseptics and their


  • Sterilization:

      Different methods, validation of sterilization methods &equipments; Sterility testing of all pharmaceutical products.

  Microbial assays of antibiotics, vitamins & amino acids.

  • Immunology and Immunological Preparations:

    Principles, antigens and heptans, immune system, cellular/humoral immunity, immunological tolerance, antigen-

  antibody reactions and their applications. Hypersensitivity, active and passive immunization. Vaccines and sera: their

  preparation, standardization and storage.

  • Genetic Recombination:

Transformation, conjugation, transduction, protoplast fusion and gene cloning and their applications. Development

  of hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies. Study of drugs produced by biotechnology such as Activase, Humulin,

  Humatrope, HB etc.

  • Antibiotics:

     Historical development of antibiotics. Antimicrobial spectrum and methods used for their standardization. Screening

  of soil for organisms producing antibiotics, fermenter, its design, control of different parameters. Isolation of mutants,

  factors influencing rate of mutation. Design of fermentation process. Isolation of fermentation products with special

  reference to penicillins, streptomycins, tetracyclines and vitamin B12.



Introduction to pharmaceutical jurisprudence & ethics                                         Refer Unit 1: Chapter 6

  • Pharmaceutical Legislations:

   A brief review; Drugs & Pharmaceutical Industry – A brief review; Pharmaceutical Education

  • An Elaborate Study of the Followings:

Pharmaceutical Ethics; Pharmacy Act 1948; Drugs and Cosmetics Act 1940 and Rules 1945; Medicinal & Toilet

   Preparations (Excise Duties) Act 1955; Narcotic Drugs & Psychotropic Substances Act 1985 & Rules; Drugs Price

   Control Order.

  • A Brief Study of the Following Acts with Special Reference to the Main Provisions and the Latest Amendments:

      Poisons Act 1919; Drugs and Magic Remedies (Objectionable Advertisements) Act 1954; Medical Termination of

   Pregnancy Act 1970 & Rules 1975; Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960; States Shops & Establishments Act &

   Rules; Insecticides Act 1968; AICTE Act 1987; Factories Act 1948; Minimum Wages Act 1948; Patents Act 1970.

      A brief study of the various Prescription/Non-prescription Products. Medical/Surgical accessories, diagnostic aids,

   appliances available in the market.



Introduction to dispensing and community pharmacy                                              Refer Unit 1: Chapter 4

  • Prescription:

      Handling of prescription, source of errors in prescription, care required in dispensing procedures including labeling

  of dispensed products. General dispensing procedures including labeling of dispensed products; Pharmaceutical


xiv    Syllabus for GPAT



  calculations: Posology, calculation of doses for infants, adults and elderly patients; Enlarging and reducing recipes

  percentage solutions, alligation, alcohol dilution, proof spirit, isotonic solutions, displacement value etc.

  • Principles Involved and Procedures Adopted in Dispensing of:

      Typical prescriptions like mixtures, solutions, emulsions, creams, ointments, powders, capsules, pastes, jellies,

  suppositories, ophthalmic, pastilles, lozenges, pills, lotions, liniments, inhalations, paints, sprays, tablet triturates, etc.

  • Incompatibilities:

      Physical and chemical incompatibilities, inorganic incompatibilities including incompatibilities of metals and their

  salts, non-metals, acids, alkalis, organic incompatibilities. Purine bases, alkaloids, pyrazolone derivatives, amino acids,

  quaternary ammonium compounds, carbohydrates, glycosides, anesthetics, dyes, surface active agents, correction of

  incompatibilities. Therapeutic incompatibilities.

  • Community Pharmacy:

   Organization and structure of retail and whole sale drug store-types of drug store and design, legal requirements for

  establishment, maintenance and drug store-dispensing of proprietary products, maintenance of records of retail and

  wholesale, patient counseling, role of pharmacist in community health care and education (First aid, communicable

  diseases, nutrition, family planning).

  • Organization and Structure of Hospital Pharmacy:

   Organization of a hospital and hospital pharmacy, Responsibilities of a hospital pharmacist, Pharmacy and therapeutic

  committee, Budget preparation and Implementation.

  • Hospital Formulary:

  Contents, preparation and revision of hospital formulary.

  • Drug Store Management and Inventory Control:

   Organization of drug store, Types of materials stocked, storage conditions; Purchase and Inventory Control principles,

  purchase procedures, Purchase order, Procurement and stocking.

  • Drug Distribution Systems in Hospitals:

      Out-patient dispensing, methods adopted; Dispensing of drugs to in-patients. Types of drug distribution systems.

  Charging policy, labeling; Dispensing of drugs to ambulatory patients; Dispensing of controlled drugs, Dispensing of

  ancillary supplies.

  • Central Sterile Supply Unit and their Management:

      Types of materials for sterilization, Packing of materials prior to sterilization, sterilization equipments, Supply of

  sterile materials.

  • Manufacture of Sterile and Non-sterile Products:

      Policy making of manufacturable items, demand and costing, personnel requirements, manufacturing practice, Master

  formula Card, production control, Manufacturing records.

  • Drug Information Services:

      Sources’ of Information on drugs, disease, treatment schedules, procurement of information, Computerized services

  (e.g., MEDLINE), Retrieval of information, Medication error- types of medication errors, correction and reporting.

  • Records and Reports:

   Prescription filling, drug profile, patient medication profile, cases on drug interaction and adverse reactions, idiosyncratic

  cases. Pharmacoeconomics: Introduction to pharmacoeconomics, different methods of pharmacoeconomics,

  application of pharmacoeconomics.

  • Pharmacoepidemiology:

     Definition and scope, method to conduct pharmacoepidemiological studies, advantages & disadvantages of

  pharmacoepidemiological studies.

  • Nuclear Pharmacy:

  Methods of handling radioisotopes, radioisotope committee.


                                                                                                     S yllabus   for   GPAT    xv