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➢ Food businesses have a legal responsibility to produce safe

➢ A food business that breaks the law faces:
• Improvement notices – a fixed time period is set for the
company to rectify problems;
• Prohibition notices – the company is not permitted to
produce particular food items;
• Prosecution.




➢ HACCP stands for ‘Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point’.
➢ HACCP is a system which looks for and prevents potential

problems before they happen.
➢ HACCP may be used by food companies to make sure they do not

break the law by putting consumers at risk when producing food.
➢ It is a structured approach to risk assessment and is one means of

satisfying the risk assessment requirement of UK hygiene

Food Standards Agency, 2017



What does HACCP involve ?
➢ Identifying points during the production of a product where

potential hazards may occur.
➢ Analyzing the risk of the hazard points happening including

the scale of consequence if they do.
➢ Deciding which points are critical to consumer safety.
➢ Implementing controls, monitoring production and taking

action if necessary.
➢ Reviewing the HACCP plan whenever the food operation is

altered, and on a regular basis (e.g. annually) even if no
alterations have been made.



Qualities of the HACCP system :

➢ systematic – potential hazards are identified before there is a


➢ efficient – it concentrates the control effort at the stages
where the risk is potentially the highest;

➢ on the spot – the processes can be controlled immediately by
the food business.



How does HACCP help?
• HACCP is a method which food businesses can use to

ensure that their products do not put consumers at risk.

• The details of a HACCP system will vary as no two
businesses are exactly alike – but the principles are the



• A hazard is a biological, chemical or physical agent that is

reasonably likely to cause illness or injury in the absence of its

• In HACCP, hazards refer to the conditions or contaminants in foods
that can cause illness or injury.

Types of hazards:
The types of hazards which a HACCP plan can focus
on include:
1) Biological hazards (e.g. harmful microorganisms);
2) Chemical hazards (e.g. those either naturally occurring,

intentionally added or unintentionally added);


3) Physical hazards (e.g. glass, stones or metal)
4) Packaging quality
5) Equipment reliability.



• A Critical Control Point (CCP) is an identifiable point in the

production chain where a hazard may occur.
• Action is taken to prevent the hazard from occurring.
• This can either be a point, step or procedure at which control can

be applied and is essential to prevent or eliminate a hazard or
reduce it to an acceptable level.

• A CCP can be used to control more than one hazard (e.g.
refrigeration storage).

• Alternatively, several CCPs may be needed to control one hazard.
• Points may be identified as CCP when hazards can be prevented,

for example:



1. Introduction of chemical residue can be prevented by control
at the receiving stage

2. A chemical hazard can be prevented by control at the
formulation or ingredient-addition stage

3. Pathogenic bacteria growth can be controlled by refrigerated
storage or chilling.
• CCP may be identified where hazards can be eliminated, for


1. Pathogenic (harmful) bacteria can be killed during cooking;

2. Metal fragments can be detected by a metal detector and
eliminated by removing the contaminated product from the
processing line;



3. Parasites can be killed by freezing.

• Points may be identified as CCPs when hazards are reduced to
acceptable levels, for example:

1. The occurrence of foreign objects can be minimised by manual
sorting and automatic collectors;

2. Some biological and chemical hazards can be minimised by
obtaining shellfish from approved waters.



Hazards analysis

Determine the critical control points

Seven Establish critical limits

of HACCP Critical Control Point (CCP) monitoring

n Corrective actions

Establish verification procedures

Record keeping procedures


1. Hazard analysis
• First step involves identifying any hazards that must be prevented,

eliminated or reduced to acceptable levels.

• All potential hazards, from the receipt of raw materials through to
release of the finished product, must be considered.

• A hazard must be controlled if it is likely to occur, and/or likely to
result in an unacceptable risk to consumers.

2. Determine the Critical Control Point (CCP):
Identifying the Critical Control Point (CCP) at the steps at which
control is essential to prevent or eliminate a hazard or to reduce it to
acceptable levels. www.DuloMix.com


3. Establish critical limits:
• A critical limit is a maximum or minimum value to which a

biological, chemical or physical limit must be controlled at a

• This is set in order to prevent, eliminate or reduce a hazard to an
acceptable level.

4. Critical control point (CCP) monitoring:
• A planned series of observations or measurements need to be

taken to assess whether a CCP is within critical limits.

• This also helps to produce an accurate record for future use in



5. Corrective actions:
• Corrective actions are procedures to be followed when a hazard is

identified in food production.

• Aim is to correct and eliminate the cause of the hazard and bring
the CCP back under control.

• The cause of problem must be identified to prevent future

• Some examples of corrective actions can include:

1. Isolating and holding product for safety evaluation;

2. Diverting the affected product or ingredients to another line
where deviation would not be considered critical

3. Destroying the product. www.DuloMix.com


6. Verification procedures :
• Verification procedures are those activities, other than monitoring

CCPs, that verify the HACCP plan and show the system is
operating according to the plan.

• This is usually completed when a system fails or there is a
significant change in the product or process. Annual checks will
often still be in place even if these two scenarios do not occur.

7. Record keeping procedures :
• Documentation and record keeping help to demonstrate the

effective implementation of the previous principles of HACCP.

• This records could be of the development of the HACCP plan, CCP
monitoring, corrective actions or verification activities.


• Four different types of HACCP records include:

1. HACCP plan and support documentation used in developing
the plan.

2. Records of CCP monitoring.

3. Records of corrective actions.

4. Records of verification activities.



Review of HACCP
• The design and running of the HACCP scheme should be

revised whenever the food operation is altered.

• The scheme should be reviewed from time to time (e.g. once
a year) even when there have been no alterations.



Thank You