Human anatomy and physiology sem 1 (unit1) hand written notes pdf

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Human anatomy and physiology are the study of the structure and function of the human body. Anatomy is the study of the physical structure of the body, while physiology deals with the functions of the body and its parts.

The human body is made up of various systems, each of which is composed of specialized organs and tissues that work together to perform specific functions. The major systems of the human body include:

1. Skeletal System: It comprises the bones, joints, and cartilage that provide support to the body and aid in movement.

2. Muscular System: It is responsible for movement and locomotion, and includes different types of muscles such as skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscles.

3. Digestive System: It processes and breaks down food into nutrients that can be used by the body, with the main organs being the stomach, intestines, liver, and pancreas.

4. Respiratory System: It is responsible for the exchange of gases, specifically taking in oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide, and includes the lungs, trachea, bronchi, and diaphragm.

5. Circulatory System: It is responsible for the circulation of blood throughout the body, including the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

6. Nervous System: It plays a significant role in regulating and coordinating bodily functions and is composed of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.

7. Endocrine System: It is responsible for the secretion of hormones that regulate various bodily functions such as metabolism, growth, and development.

8. Immune System: It protects the body against infections and diseases and includes organs such as the thymus, spleen, bone marrow, and lymph nodes.

In addition to these systems, the human body also has various organs such as the kidneys, bladder, reproductive organs, and skin, each with their own specific functions.

The study of human anatomy and physiology involves understanding the structure and function of these organs and systems, as well as how they interact with each other to maintain the overall health and wellness of the body. It is essential to understand the workings of the human body so that we can take steps to care for it and prevent diseases and illnesses.