Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry sem5 (unit2) hand written notes pdf

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Alkaloids are naturally occurring organic compounds that contain nitrogen atoms. They are found in a wide variety of plants and have a wide range of biological activities. Alkaloids are known for their effects on the human body and are often used for medicinal purposes.

Alkaloids are commonly found in plants such as opium poppies, coca leaves, and tobacco. They are produced by plants as a defense mechanism against predators, but they can also have other functions such as serving as a source of energy, regulating growth and development, and helping plants survive in harsh environmental conditions.

Alkaloids have a wide range of biological activities, including analgesic (pain-relieving), sedative, stimulant, and hallucinogenic effects. They can also have antitumor, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties.

Some well-known alkaloids include morphine and codeine from the opium poppy, caffeine from coffee and tea leaves, nicotine from tobacco, and cocaine from coca leaves. These alkaloids have been used for thousands of years for medicinal and recreational purposes.

Although many alkaloids have beneficial effects, some can be toxic and even deadly if taken in large quantities. For example, the alkaloid strychnine, found in plants like the poison nut tree, can cause convulsions and death even in small amounts.

Overall, alkaloids are a complex and diverse group of natural compounds with a wide range of biological activities, and they continue to be an important area of research in medicine and pharmacology.