Cosmeceuticals addressing pigmentation , prickly heat ,wrinkles, body odour. PDF/PPT

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Cosmeceuticals addressing
pigmentation , prickly heat

,wrinkles, body odour.

Presented by;
(mpharm 1 sem)

Department of pharmaceutics 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23


• Body odor is the perceived unpleasant smell our bodies can give off

when bacteria that live on the skin break down sweat into acids.
• Body odor usually becomes evident if measures are not taken when

a human reaches puberty. People who are obese, those who
regularly eat spicy foods, as well as individuals with certain medical
conditions, such as diabetes, are more susceptible to having body

• People who sweat too much, such as those with hyperhidrosis, may
also be susceptible to body odor. However, often the salt level of
their sweat is too high for the bacteria to break down. It depends
on where the excess sweating is occurring and which type of sweat
glands are involved.

• Sweat itself is virtually odorless to humans. It is the rapid
multiplication of bacteria in the presence of sweat and their
breaking down of sweat into acids that eventually causes the
unpleasant smell. 24



• Body odor is caused by bacteria breaking down sweat
and is largely linked to the apocrine glands. Most body
odor comes from these.

• These glands are found in the breasts, genital area,
eyelids, armpits, and ear. In the ear, they help
form earwax. Apocrine glands in the skin and the
eyelids are sweat glands.

• Most of the apocrine glands in the skin are located in
the groin, armpits.In the skin, they usually have an

• The apocrine glands are mainly responsible for body
odor because the sweat they produce is high in
protein, which bacteria can break down easily. 25


• Wash daily with warm water: Have a shower or bath at least once

a day. since warm water helps kill off bacteria that are present on
the skin. If the weather is exceptionally hot, consider bathing more
often than once a day.

• Clothing: Natural fibers allow your skin to breathe, resulting in
better evaporation of sweat. Natural-made fibers include wool, silk
or cotton.

• Avoid spicy foods: Curry, garlic, and other spicy foods have the
potential to make some people’s sweat more pungent. Some
experts believe a diet high in red meat may also raise the risk of
developing more rapid body odor.

• Aluminum chloride: This substance is usually the main active
ingredient in antiperspirants. If your body does not respond to the
home remedies mentioned above, talk to a pharmacist or your
doctor about a suitable product containing aluminum chloride.
Follow the instructions given to you carefully. 26


• Antiperspirant : these are personal hygiene
products designed to control sweating and
body odour safely and effectively. They are
readily available on the market as sprays
(aerosol) ,sticks, creams and roll-ons.

• Deodorant : these are used to eliminate bad
odour which is generally caused by sweating
.They are applied locally on the surface of the
body 27


• Botulinum toxin: This is a toxin produced
by Clostridium botulinum; it is the most
poisonous biological substance known. However,
very small and controlled doses are today being
used in various fields of medicine. A relatively
new treatment is available for individuals who
sweat excessively under the arms.

• The individual is given approximately 12
injections of botulinum toxin in the armpits – a
procedure that should not last more than 45
minutes. The toxin blocks the signals from the
brain to the sweat glands, resulting in less
sweating in the targeted area. One treatment can
last from two to eight months. 28


• Surgery: When self-care and medicinal measures
are not effective at treating severe body odor, a
doctor can perform a surgical procedure called
endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) that
destroys the sweating-controlling nerves below
the skin of the armpits.

• This procedure is a last resort and runs the risk of
damage to other nerves and arteries in the area.
It can also increase sweating in other parts of the
body, known as compensatory sweating. 29 30