FORMULATION APPROACHES & REQUIREMENTS TOPIC: Wrinkles &Body Odour Structure Of Hair & Hair Growth Cycle PDF/PPT

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TOPIC: Prickly Heat, Wrinkles &Body Odour
Structure Of Hair & Hair Growth Cycle




Associate Professor
Dept. of



Commonly called heat rash or miliaria. It is caused by obstruction to
the sweat ducts.
Skin care is the main treatment.
It is heat rash characterized by itchy red spots which develop on the
chest ,under the armpits and between the thighs in the hot countries.
Basically caused by blocked sweat glands.
Occurs when sweat cannot freely evaporate from the skin and
sweat ducts become plugged.
This inflammation can cause a red rash.
Can be prevented by wearing clothes that allow sweat to evaporate
as well as bathing regularly and drying the skin.


 Drink plenty of cool water or electrolyte replacement fluids even
if not thirsty. (One small cup every 15-20 minutes)
 Be able to recognize early signs & symptoms of heat induced
illness and take appropriate action to prevent serious heat disorders.
 Spend as little time as possible in direct sunlight.
 Take frequent breaks in cool, shaded areas.
 Wear light, loose fitting, clothing.
 Avoid caffeine, which can make the body lose water.


Wrinkles are the lines and creases that form in your skin. Some
wrinkles can become deep crevices or furrows and may be especially
noticeable around your eyes, mouth and neck.

 Age. As we get older, our skin naturally becomes less elastic and
more fragile. Decreased production of natural oils dries our skin and
makes it appear more wrinkled.
Fat in the deeper layers of our skin diminishes. This causes loose,
saggy skin and more-pronounced lines and crevices.

 Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. Ultraviolet radiation, which
speeds the natural aging process, is the primary cause of early
wrinkling. Exposure to UV light breaks down our skin’s connective
tissue — collagen and elastin fibers, which lie in the deeper layer of
skin (dermis).
Without the supportive connective tissue, our skin loses strength
and flexibility. Skin then begins to sag and wrinkle prematurely.


CONT…. 6
 Smoking. Smoking can accelerate the normal aging process of our
skin, contributing to wrinkles. This may be due to changes in the blood
supply to our skin.

 Repeated facial expressions. Facial movements and expressions,
such as squinting or smiling, lead to fine lines and wrinkles. Each time
we use a facial muscle, a groove forms beneath the surface of the skin.
And as skin ages, it loses its flexibility and is no longer able to spring
back in place. These grooves then become permanent features on our


 Topical retinoids. Derived from vitamin A, retinoids — such as
tretinoin (Renova, Retin-A) and tazarotene (Avage, Tazorac) — that
we apply to our skin may reduce fine wrinkles, splotches and skin
Because retinoids can make our skin burn more easily, you’ll need to
use a broad spectrum sunscreen and wear protective clothing daily.
Retinoids may cause redness, dryness, itching, and a burning or tingling

 Nonprescription wrinkle creams. The effectiveness of anti-
wrinkle creams depends in part on the active ingredients.
Retinol, antioxidants and some peptides may result in slight to modest
improvements in wrinkles.



➢ Natural bacteria on our skin feed on our sweat and release the
smell we call body odour, also known as bromhidrosis. The warm,
damp conditions of underarms make them an ideal environment for
bacteria to thrive and for the sweat from our apocrine glands which
are more prone to releasing odour – to get trapped. This can also
result in sweat patches on our clothes.
Body odour starts to occur when we’re in puberty. Men tend to
suffer more from body odour, as they sweat more from their
apocrine glands than women, even though women actually have
more sweat glands overall.


Certain foods, like curry, garlic or spices, alcohol and some ty9pes
of medication can also make our sweat smell unpleasant.


• Make deodorant part of your daily routine.
• Sweat can easily get trapped in our armpits, feet, toes and genital
area – which can lead to sweat patches – so it’s important to wash
and dry these parts of our body properly with an appropriate soap or
shower gel.
• As hair allows sweat to get trapped and cause body odour, shaving
our underarms can help.
• If smelly feet are a problem, make sure we wear socks made from
natural fabrics and change them daily, and avoid wearing shoes
made from synthetic materials.


What is hair ?

❑ Hair is a simple structure that is made up of Protein filaments ca0lled
❑ Hair acts as a barrier to foreign particles.
❑ It’s an important part of appearance and creates gender identity.
❑ Hair is the only body structure that can completely renew itself
without scarring.

Structure of the Hair
Human hair is divided into two parts:
(“epi”- means above or outer; “derm”- means skin so epidermis is the
OUTER layer of skin)
➢Hair root (roots are underground)- located below the epidermis
➢Hair shaft- located above the epidermis


Structures of the Hair Root 11

*Hair follicle- tube-like depression or pocket in the skin or scalp that
contains the hair root
*Hair bulb- lowest part of a strand of hair; thickened, club-shaped
*Dermal papilla- small, cone-shaped elevation located at the base of the
hair follicle that fits into the hair bulb
*Arrector pili muscle- small, involuntary muscle in the base of the hair
follicle; when it contracts, we get goose bumps
*Sebaceous glands- oil glands in the skin that are connected to the hair
follicles; secretes sebum (fatty, oily substance)


Structures of the Hair Shaft

*Hair cuticle- outermost layer of hair; consists of a single, overlapping layer
of transparent, scale-like cells; protects inner structure of hair; creates shines
and smoothness
*Cortex- middle layer of the hair; 90% of total hair weight comes from the
cortex; elasticity and color are the result of protein in the cortex
*Medulla- innermost layer of hair; generally only thick, coarse hair contains
a medulla; has no known purpose

Chemical Composition of the Hair
*Keratinization- process by which newly formed hair cells in the hair bulb
mature, fill with keratin, move upward, lose their nucleus and die
*COHNS- major elements that make up the human hair:
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur





Side Bonds of the Cortex 14
*Side bonds-link the polypeptide chains (long chain of amino acids linked
together by peptide bonds) together; responsible for the strength and
elasticity of human hair
*Hydrogen Bond- weak, physical cross-link bond that is easily broken by
water or heat
*Salt Bond- weak, physical cross-link bond that is broken by alkaline or
acidic solutions
*Disulfide Bond- strong, chemical side bond; can be broken by extreme
heat, some high-temp styling tools, permanent waves and chemical relaxers

Hair Pigment 15
*Melanin- the tiny grains of pigment in the cortex that give hair its natural
*Eumelanin- provides natural dark brown to black hair color
*Pheomelanin- provides natural colors ranging from red to ginger to yellow
and blonde tones

*Two main types of hair found on the body are vellus hair and terminal hair.
*Vellus hair (lanugo hair)- short, fine, unpigmented, downy; appears on
parts of the body that are normally considered hairless (forehead, eyelids,
bald scalp);almost never has a medulla; helps with the evaporation of
perspiration; women normally retain 55% more vellus hair than men
*Terminal hair- long, coarse, pigmented hair found on the scalp, legs, arms,
and bodies of both males and females; it usually has a medulla


*The three stages of hair growth are the
1. Anagen Phase
2. Catagen Phase
3. telogen Phase
*Each strand of hair on the human body is at its own stage of development.
*Once the cycle is complete, it restarts and a new strand of hair begins to
*The rate or speed of hair growth is about 1.25 centimetres or 0.5 inches
per month, or about 15 centimetres or 6 inches per year.





*The anagen phase is known as the growth phase. This is the phase where
the hair physically grows approximately 1 cm per month.
*It begins in the papilla and can last from two to six years. The span at
which the hair remains in this stage of growth is determined by genetics.
*The longer the hair stays in the anagen phase, the longer it will grow.
During this phase, the cells in the papilla divide to produce new hair
fibers[contradictory], and the follicle buries itself into the dermal layer of
the skin to nourish the strand.
About 85% – 90% of the hairs on one’s head are in the anagen phase at
any given time



*The catagen phase, also known as the transitional phase, allows the follicle
to, in a sense, renew itself. During this time, which lasts about two weeks,
the hair follicle shrinks due to disintegration and the papilla detaches and
“rests,” cutting the hair strand off from its nourishing blood supply.
*Signals sent out by the body (that only selectively affect 1 percent of all
hair of one’s body at any given time) determine when the anagen phase ends
and the catagen phase begins.
*The first sign of catagen is the cessation of melanin production in the hair
bulb and apoptosis of follicular melanocytes.
Ultimately, the follicle is 1/6 its original length, causing the hair shaft to be
pushed upward.
*While hair is not growing during this phase, the length of the terminal
fibers increase when the follicle pushes them upward.


*During the telogen or resting phase (also known as shedding phase) the
follicle remains dormant for one to four months. Ten to fifteen percent of the
hairs on one’s head are in this phase of growth at any given time.
*In this phase the epidermal cells lining the follicle channel continue to
grow as normal and may accumulate around the base of the hair, temporarily
anchoring it in place and preserving the hair for its natural purpose without
taxing the body’s resources needed during the growth phase.
*At some point, the follicle will begin to grow again, softening the anchor
point of the shaft initially. The hair base will break free from the root and the
hair will be shed. Within two weeks the new hair shaft will begin to emerge
once the telogen phase is complete. The process results in normal hair loss
known as shedding.