Human anatomy and physiology sem 1 (unit2) hand written notes pdf

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The integumentary system is a complex organ system that is responsible for protecting the body from the external environment. It is composed of skin, hair, nails, and various glands. The skin is the largest organ in the body and has several layers.

The outermost layer of the skin is the epidermis, which is made up of several layers of skin cells. The sole function of the epidermis is to protect the skin from environmental damage, as well as to regulate body temperature and maintain hydration. The epidermis also contains melanocytes which produce pigments that give color to the skin.

The dermis is the second layer of the skin, and it contains blood vessels, nerves, and hair follicles. It provides blood supply to the skin and is responsible for maintaining homeostasis. Nerves in the dermis send signals to the brain regarding pain and temperature.

The third layer is the hypodermis, also known as the subcutaneous layer, which is made up of fatty tissue and is responsible for storing energy and cushioning the skin.

Hair, nails, and glands are also part of the integumentary system. Hair is made up of protein fibers that grow from hair follicles within the dermis. Nails are made of a protein called keratin and protect the tip of the fingers and toes. Glands, such as sweat and oil glands, secrete substances that help regulate body temperature and keep the skin lubricated.

Overall, the integumentary system plays a crucial role in protecting the body from external harm, regulating body temperature and fluids, and maintaining the health of other internal organs.