Introduction & Scope of Pharmacology PPT/PDF

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Introduction & Scope of Pharmacology

Mr. Sangale G.P.

Mula Education Society College of Pharmacy, Sonai.


Introduction & Definition

• Pharmacology

 Pharmacon – Drug
 Logos – Study

• It is defined as the study of the substances which
interact with living system by activating or
inhibiting normal body processes.

▫ (In simple terms, it is study of all the aspects of


• Drug : A chemical substance that is used for
diagnosis, prevention & treatment of disease.
(French: Drogue -Dry herb)

 Contraceptives

 General Anaesthetics
 Vaccines State

• WHO : “Any substance or product that is used
or intended to be used to modify or explore
the physiological system or pathological
state for the benefit of the recipient”


Classification of Drugs

• Based on site of action
• Based on Chemical Structure
• Based on Mechanism of Action
• Based on Ionization of Drugs
• Based on Therapeutic Uses
• Based on Anatomical Therapeutics Classification



Sources of Drugs

• A) Plant Sources
• B) Animal Sources
• C) Microorganism
• D) Chemicals
• E) Recombinant DNA Technology


• A) Plant Sources-

• 1) Alkaloids – Atropine (Atropa belladona)
Morphine (Papaver somniferum)

• 2) Glycosides- Digoxin (Digitalis purpura)
• 3) Oils- Essential oil (Volatile oil)-leaves & Flower

eg- clove oil, pipermint, eucalyptus
Fixed oil- seeds

eg- ground nut, coconut, castor, olive oil
Mineral oil- liquid paraffin

• 4) Gum – excretory products (gum acacia)
• 5) Resins – Tolu balsam (cough mix)
• 6) Tannins – catechu


• B) Animal Sources

• 1) Hormones – Insulin (Pork-Procine), (Beef-Bovine )

• 2) Vaccines – Polio, Antirabies
• 3) Sera – ATS (Antitetanus Serum)
• 4) Vitamins – Vit B12 from Liver extract

• C) Microorganism- Antibiotics
• D) Chemicals – synthetic drugs
• E) Recombinant DNA Tech – Human

Insulin, Calcitonin, Gonadotropins,
erythropoietin etc.


Nomenclature of Drugs

• Chemical Non-Proprietary Proprietary

Generic Name Brand Name

Approved Name Trade Name

Official Name Commercial


Some examples of Chemical, Generic, Brand Names

Chemical Name Generic Name/ Brand Name/
Non- Proprietary Proprietary
Name Name

Acetyl Salicylic Aspirin Disprin

Acetaminophen Paracetamol Crosin,

Aminobenzyl Ampicillin Roscillin


• Generic/Non-Proprietary Name-

▫ Given by USAN Council (United States Adopted

 World-wide acceptance, name remains the same

in all countries.
 Usually have similar suffix in a group.
 Economical than Branded/Proprietary


 Naming of Fixed Dose combinations.


• Brand Name/Proprietary Name-
Name given by Pharmaceutical company for
commercial purpose.

 The consistency or Pharmacokinetics or efficacy

does not change with same brand.
 Single brand name for a Medicine with multiple

 Bioavailability remains same where a patient is

maintained on a particular brand.

 Branded Medicines are costlier.
 Multiple brands for a same Medicine.


Examples of the Drugs with more than one
Generic Name-

Acetaminophen Paracetamol

Adrenaline Epinephrine

Noradrenaline Norepinephrine

Frusimide Furosemide

Oestrogen Estrogen

Streptozotocin Streptozocin

Lignocaine Lidocaine

Methylergometrine Methylergonovine


Drug Categories


(Over The Counter)



Sources of Drug Information
• Official Compendia

• Pharmacopoeia (IP, BP, USP)
• Formulary (NFI)

• Non-Official Compendia
• Physician’s Drug References(PDR)- USA
• Martindale Pharmacopoeia – Great Britain

• Other Sources of Drug Information
• Drug indices (CIMS, IDR, MIMS, Drug Index)
• Drug advertisement
• Internet, Medical Rep.


Essential Drugs
• WHO in 1977 published a list of drug as “Model list of

Essential drugs”.

• “List of drugs that satisfy the health care needs of
majority of the population; they should therefore, be
available at all times in adequate amount & in
appropriate dosage form.”

• The current WHO list is revised in 2011 as 17th edition
for adults with 23 FDC & 3rd edition for children.

• India produced its National Essential Drug List in 1996,
presently it is revised in 2011 with title “NLEM
(National List of Essential Medicines)” which includes
348 medicines.




Subdivisions of Pharmacology:
• These are followings
• Pharmacy: It deals with study of collection,

compounding, and dispensing of drugs so as to make
them fit for administration to patient.

• Immuno pharmacology: It deals with the
immunological actions of drugs in immune system and
development of antibodies in response to a drug.

• Pharmacoeconomics: It is the branch which deals with
economics of drug, which aims to quantify drug in
economic terms, the cost and benefit of drugs used

• Pharmacokinetics: It deals with Absorption,
Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) of


Subdivisions of Pharmacology

• Pharmacodynamics: It deals with study of biochemical
and physiological effects of drugs and their mechanism
of actions.

• Pharmacotherapeutics: it deals with the use of drugs in
prevention and treatment of diseases.

• Clinical Pharmacology: It deals with the study of drugs
in human/animals when given in diseased condition.

• Pharmacognosy: It deals with the sources of drugs.
• Pharmacogenetics: It deals with the study of genetically

determined variations in response to drugs.
• Pharmacometrics: It deals with the study of qualitative

and quantitative evaluation of drugs activity.


Subdivisions of Pharmacology
• Experimental Pharmacology: It deals with the study of

drugs action in animals under laboratory conditions.
• Pharmacoepidemiology: It deals with the study of both

beneficial and adverse effects of drug on human/animal

• Chemotherapy: It deals with study of drugs that
inhibits specific agents of diseases such as bacteria,
virus and fungi

• Toxicology: It deals with the study of adverse effects of
drugs or chemicals on living system.

• Materia Medica: It is a book containing information
about pharmacy, pharmacognosy, posology and uses of
drugs. Now a days it is replaced by modern science of


• Knowledge of drugs and their uses in diseases are as old

as history of mankind.

• Primitive men gather the knowledge of healing and
medicines by observing the nature, noticing the animals
while ill and personal experience after consuming plants
and herbs as remedies.

• Ancient civilizations discovered that extracts from
plants, animals, and minerals had medicinal effects on
body tissue. These discoveries became the foundation of

• Pharmacology in the present form is relatively recent
branch about hundred years old.


Historical developments in Pharmacology

• PEN PSAO (2700 BC) It was the great herbal materia
medica written in china.

• Kahun Papyrus (2000 BC) is an oldest Egyptian document
containing information about veterinary medicines and
uterine diseases of women.

• Ebers papyrus (1550 BC) also an Egyptian document
containing information about number of diseases and
829 prescription where castor oil, opium like drug are
being used.

• Hippocrates (460-375 BC) A greek physician consider
“father of Medicine”. He was the first person who
recognize disease as abnormal reaction of body. He
introduce use of metallic salts for the treatment of


Historical developments in Pharmacology

• Theophrastus (380-287 BC) a great philosopher called father of
Pharmacognosy. He classified medicinal plants on the base of
medicinal characteristics.

• Dioscorides (AD 57) a greek, produced one of the first materia
medica of approximately 500 plants and remedies.

• Claudius Galen (AD 129–200) first attempted to consider the
theoretical background of pharmacology.

• Paracelsus (1493–1541) a Swiss scholar and alchemist, often
considered the ―grandfather of pharmacology‖. He
introduces the use of chemicals for treatment of disease.

• Valerius Cordus (1514-1544) He compiled the first pharmacopeia
where he described techniques for the preparation of drugs.


• Conversion of old medicines into the modern

pharmacology start taking shape following the
introduction of animal experimentation and isolation of
active ingredients from plants.

• Francois Megendie (1783-1855) a first pharmacologist
established the foundation of modern pharmacology. He
developed experiment to elucidate the physiological
processes and action of drugs on the body.

• Frederich Sertürner, German pharmacist’s assistant,
isolated morphine—the first pure drug—in 1805

• Claude Bernard (1813-1878) considered Father of
experimental Medicine. He identifies the site of action of
curare (arrow Poisoning).


• Rudolph Buchheim (1820–1879) German pharmacologist a

key figure in the development of pharmacology, a who at
the University of Dorpat, created the first
pharmacological institute.

• Oswald Schmiedeberg (1838–1921) ―Father of
Pharmacology‖ established pharmacology as an
independent discipline. He start teaching Pharmacology
in University of Strasbourg (France).

• John Jacob Abel (1857-1938) founded first department of
pharmacology in USA in the University of Michigan in
1893. In 1897 he established pharmacology department
at Johns Hopkins University. Abel also co-founded the
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
in 1909.



• L. mayer Jones (1912-2002) regarded as father of
modern veterinary pharmacology. He authored first book
of veterinary pharmacology therapeutics in 1954.

• It provides the rational basis for the therapeutic use of

the drug. Before the establishment of this discipline,
even though many remedies were used, but doctors
were reluctant to apply scientific principles to

• In 1920s, many synthetic chemicals were first introduced
and the modern pharmaceutical companies began to



• Scientific understanding of drugs enables us to predict
the pharmacological effect of a new chemical that will
produce a specified therapeutic effect.

• The scope of pharmacology has expanded greatly over
the last decade to incorporate many new approaches
such as computer-assisted drug design, genetic screens,
protein engineering and use of novel drug delivery
vehicles including viruses and artificial cells.

• Our society needs pharmacologists who understand the
basis of modern therapeutics for careers within
academic, pharmaceutical and governmental
laboratories to study and develop tomorrow’s drugs.


Thank You…