Human anatomy and physiology sem 1 (unit3) hand written notes pdf

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Body fluids are liquids that are present inside and outside the cells of our body. They are essential for normal body function and homeostasis. The major body fluids are blood, lymph, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, sweat, saliva, tears, and breast milk.

– Blood: Blood is a fluid that circulates throughout the body in vessels called blood vessels. It is composed of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Blood carries nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and removes waste products from them.

– Lymph: Lymph is a fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system, which is a network of vessels and organs that help the body fight infections and diseases. Lymph contains white blood cells called lymphocytes that help in fighting infections.

– Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): CSF is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It acts as a cushion for the brain and spinal cord, protecting them from trauma. It also helps in the removal of waste products from the brain.

– Urine: Urine is a waste product that is excreted from the body through the urinary system. It is composed of water, urea, creatinine, and other waste products. Urine helps in the removal of harmful waste products from the body.

– Sweat: Sweat is a fluid that is produced by sweat glands located in the skin. It helps in regulating body temperature by cooling the body through the process of evaporation. Sweat also helps in removing harmful substances from the body.

– Saliva: Saliva is a fluid that is produced by salivary glands located in the mouth. It helps in moistening the food, making it easier to swallow. Saliva also contains enzymes that begin the process of digestion.

– Tears: Tears are a fluid that is produced by tear glands located in the eyes. They help in lubricating and protecting the eyes from irritants. Tears also contain antibodies that help in fighting infections.

– Breast milk: Breast milk is a fluid that is produced by the mammary glands in the breasts of females. It provides essential nutrients to the newborns and helps in protecting them from infections.

Overall, body fluids play an important role in maintaining normal body function and health. Any imbalance in the composition or amount of body fluids can lead to various health problems.