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Personalized medicine, also known as precision medicine, is a medical model that separates people into different groups based on their predicted response or risk of disease ¹. This approach tailors medical decisions, practices, interventions, and/or products to the individual patient ¹. The terms personalized medicine, precision medicine, stratified medicine, and P4 medicine are used interchangeably to describe this concept ¹².

In personalized medicine, diagnostic testing is often employed to select appropriate and optimal therapies based on the context of a patient’s genetic content or other molecular or cellular analysis ¹. The use of genetic information has played a major role in certain aspects of personalized medicine, such as pharmacogenomics ¹. However, personalized medicine has since broadened to encompass all sorts of personalization measures, including the use of proteomics, imaging analysis, nanoparticle-based theranostics, among others ¹.

Modulated drug delivery systems are a type of drug delivery system that delivers the necessary amount of drugs on demand, in accordance with biological needs, and stops until required again at a later time ². These systems are also known as self-regulated drug delivery systems, signal-responsive, signal-receptive, signal-sensitive, signal-triggered, or on-demand drug-delivery systems ²³. In modulated drug delivery systems, drug release is controlled by physical, chemical, or biochemical processes or facilitated by the energy supplied externally ³. The kinetics of release can be modulated by controlling the applying processes or the amount of external energy .

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