Pharmaceutical analysis sem 1 (unit1) hand written notes pdf

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Pharmaceutical analysis is a branch of analytical chemistry that involves the identification, separation, and quantification of drugs and other active compounds present in pharmaceutical formulations. It is a critical step in drug development and manufacturing, ensuring the quality, safety, and efficacy of pharmaceutical products.

Pharmaceutical analysis involves the use of various analytical techniques such as chromatography, spectroscopy, and microscopy. These techniques are used to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of drug substances and formulations, including their purity, stability, and quality.

Chromatography is the most widely used analytical technique in pharmaceutical analysis. It involves the separation of a mixture of components based on their differing properties such as molecular weight, polarity, or solubility. Some of the commonly used chromatographic techniques include high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC), and thin-layer chromatography (TLC).

Spectroscopy is another essential analytical technique used in pharmaceutical analysis. It involves the measurement of the absorption, emission, or scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a substance. Some of the commonly used spectroscopic techniques include ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

Microscopy is also used in pharmaceutical analysis to examine the morphological and physical characteristics of drug substances and formulations. Some of the commonly used microscopy techniques include light microscopy, electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Pharmaceutical analysis plays a crucial role in pharmaceutical research and development, quality control, and regulatory compliance. It ensures that drugs are safe, effective, and of high quality, and helps to identify any impurities or contaminants that may pose a risk to human health.