Pharmaceutical analysis sem 1 (unit2) hand written notes pdf

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Titration is a common laboratory technique that is used to determine the concentration of a solution. It involves the gradual addition of one solution to another until the chemical reaction between the two solutions is complete.

The solution being added is called the titrant, while the solution being tested is the analyte. The two solutions are usually contained in separate containers, and the titrant is added in small increments to the analyte until a certain endpoint is reached. The endpoint is when the reaction between the solutions is complete, which is usually indicated by a color change or other observable change.

Titration is commonly used in many fields such as chemistry, biology, and pharmacology. It is used to determine the acid or base concentration of a solution, as well as to determine the concentration of other substances such as metallic ions or drugs.

There are several types of titrations, including acid-base titrations, redox titrations, and complexometric titrations. Each type of titration requires different reagents and equipment, and the process for each is slightly different.

Accuracy and precision are very important in titration. The titrant must be accurately measured, and care must be taken to ensure that the endpoint is accurately determined. A small error in the amount of titrant added or in the endpoint determination can significantly affect the accuracy of the final result. Therefore, titration is usually performed a few times to ensure reproducibility of the results.

In conclusion, titration is an important laboratory technique that is commonly used to determine the concentration of a solution. It requires careful measurement and attention to detail to ensure accurate results.