Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry sem5 (unit1) hand written notes pdf

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Metabolic pathways refer to the series of chemical reactions that occur within a living organism in order to convert food into energy, or the building blocks required for life. These pathways are necessary for carrying out the functions of various tissues and organs within an organism, and they are tightly regulated by intricate systems of enzymes, hormones and signaling molecules.

There are two main types of metabolic pathways: catabolic and anabolic. Catabolic pathways involve the break-down of larger molecules into smaller ones, releasing energy in the process. Anabolic pathways, on the other hand, involve the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones, requiring energy.

Some well-known metabolic pathways include:

– Glycolysis: This is the process by which glucose is broken down into pyruvate, resulting in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the molecule that serves as the main source of energy for cells.

– Citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle): This pathway takes place in the mitochondria of cells and is responsible for the production of ATP by the breakdown of acetyl-CoA, a molecule produced from the oxidation of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

– Oxidative phosphorylation: This is a series of chemical reactions that occur within the mitochondria of cells, resulting in the production of ATP from the electron transport chain.

– Lipid metabolism: This pathway involves the utilization of fats for energy, as well as the synthesis of lipids for various cellular processes.

– Amino acid metabolism: This pathway involves the break-down of amino acids for energy, as well as their synthesis for the construction of proteins within the cell.

The regulation of metabolic pathways is complex, with various factors such as hormones, coenzymes, and cellular signaling molecules exerting control over these processes. Dysfunction in metabolic pathways can lead to a range of diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and metabolic disorders.