Respiratory system hand written notes pdf

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The respiratory system is a complex network of organs and tissues responsible for bringing air into and out of the body. The main function of the respiratory system is to facilitate the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment.

The respiratory system starts with the nose and mouth, which act as the entry point for air. From there, air travels down the throat and into the trachea, which is a large, flexible tube that connects the nose and mouth to the lungs. The trachea branches into two smaller tubes called the bronchi, which in turn branch into smaller tubes called bronchioles. Finally, at the end of the bronchioles are tiny air sacs called alveoli.

The process of breathing involves a series of movements that cause air to flow in and out of the lungs. When a person inhales, the diaphragm (a large muscle located at the bottom of the chest) contracts, pulling air into the lungs. The air then passes through the bronchi and bronchioles, eventually reaching the alveoli. At this point, oxygen from the air diffuses into the bloodstream, while carbon dioxide (a waste product produced by cells in the body) diffuses out of the bloodstream and into the alveoli. When a person exhales, the diaphragm relaxes, pushing the air out of the lungs.

The respiratory system also has several important defense mechanisms to protect the lungs from harmful particles and microorganisms. These include cilia (tiny hair-like structures that line the airways), which help to trap and remove foreign particles, and the production of mucus (a sticky substance that coats the airways), which also helps to trap and remove harmful substances.

Overall, the respiratory system is essential for delivering oxygen to the body and removing carbon dioxide, which helps to maintain proper bodily function.