AND RURAL SANITATION
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION IN
➢ Drinking water supply and sanitation facilities are
very important and crucial for achieving the goal of
➢ According to WHO, “poor sanitation and inadequate
sewage disposal the nation’s biggest public health
➢ Approximately 80-90% of untreated sewage is
discharged directly into rivers and streams, the main
source water supply in cities. Human faeces remains
one of the world’s most dangerous pollutants,
spreading microbes that causes typhoid, cholera,
diarrheal illness, amoebic dysentery and other
STATUS IN INDIA
URBAN RURAL TOTAL
➢ Improved water source : 96% 84% 88%
➢ Improved sanitation : 54% 21% 31%
➢ WATER SUPPLY CONTINUITY
According to INDIAN NORMS, access to improved
water supply exists if at least 40 liter/ capita / day of safe
drinking water are provided within a distance of 1.6km
or 100 meter of elevation difference, to be relaxed as per
field conditions. There should be at least one pump per
In 2010, the UN estimated based on India statistics that
626 million people practice open defecation.
In June 2012, minister of rural development JAIRAM
RAMESH stated India is the words largests “ open air
Of the 2.5 Billion people in the world that defecate
openly, some 665 Million live in India.
As of 2003, it was estimated that only 27% of India’s
waste water was being treated, with the remainder
flowing into rivers, canals, ground water or the sea.
RIVER GANGES -INDIA
➢ The lack of adequate sanitation and safe water has
significant negative health impacts including diarrhea,
chronic diseases, respiratory problems, skin disorders,
allergies, headaches and eye infections.
RESPONSIBILTY FOR WATER
SUPPLY AND SANITATION
➢ Water supply and sanitation is a state responsibility
under the INDIAN CONSTITUTION.
➢ State may give the responsibility to the Panchayati Raj
Institutions (PRI) in rural areas.
➢ In urban areas, responsibility is given to the
municipalities, called Urban Local Bodies (ULB).
POLICY AND REGULATION
➢ The responsibility for water supply and sanitation at
the central and state level is shared by various
ministries. At the central level three ministries have
responsibilities in the sector.
1) The Ministry Of Drinking Water And Sanitation
2) The Ministry Of Housing And Urban Poverty
3) The Ministry Of Urban Development.
ROLE OF GOVERNMENT – INDIA
➢ 1954 – National Water Supply And Sanitation
➢ 1972 – ARWSP (Accelerated Rural Water Supply
➢ 1981 – International Drinking Water Supply And
➢ 2002 – Swajaldhara
➢ 2008 – National Urban Sanitation Policy
NATIONAL WATER SUPPLY AND
➢ It was initiated in 1954.
➢ Objective :
To providing safe water supply and adequate drainage
facilities for the entire urban and rural population of the
➢ Targets :
a) 100% urban and rural water supply.
b) 50% urban sanitation.
c) 25% rural sanitation.
ARWSP (ACCELERATED RURAL
WATER SUPPLY PROGRAMME)
➢ In 1972, a special programme known as “ARWSP”
was started as supplement to the national water
supply and sanitation programme.
➢ The central government supports the efforts of the
states in identifying problem villages through
➢ A ‘Problem village’ has been defined as one where no
source of safe water is available within a distance of
1.6 km / 15 m deep, or where source has excess salinity
iron, fluorides & other toxic elements, or where water
is exposed to the risk of cholera.
WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION
➢ It was launched in 1981 by the government of India.
➢ Targets were set on coverage – 100% coverage for
water, both urban and rural, 80% for urban
sanitation and 25% for rural sanitation.
➢ The stipulated norm of water supply is 40 litres of safe
drinking water per capita per day.
➢ At least one hand pump/ spot source for every 250
➢ Adopt proper environmental practices including
disposal of garbage, refuse and waste water.
➢ To convert all existing dry latrines into low cost
➢ It was launched in 25th dec. 2002. It has certain reform
principles which needed to be adhered by the states
To provide safe drinking water in rural areas, with full
ownership of the community, building awareness among the
village community on the management of drinking water
projects, including better hygiene practices and encouraging
water conservation practices along with rainwater
➢ Swajaldhara has two components :
1. Swajaldhara 1 (first dhara) : is for gram panchayat
or a group of panchayat (at block / tehsil level).
2. Swajaldhara 2 (second dhara) : has district as the
➢ Plan , implement , operate , maintain and manage all
water supply and sanitation programme.
➢ Conversation measures :
A. Rain water harvesting
B. Ground water recharge system
NATIONAL URBAN SANITATION
➢ In November 2008 , the government of India launched a
National Urban Sanitation policy.
➢ GOAL:- The main goal of this policy is creating “ totally
sanitized cities” that are
– to treat all waste water
– to make free from open defecation
– to eliminate manual scavenging
– to collect and dispose solid waste safety.