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Total Quality Management

Week # 4

Leadership, Commitment, & Strategy

(34)Prepared by: Khalid Dahleez
Faculty of Commerce – the Islamic University of Gaza

This material was collected from different sources

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 1


Total Quality Management Model – major features




Systems Tools

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 2


The total quality management approach

 What is quality management?

‘something that is best left to the experts’ ➔ wrong

 Quality cannot be achieved on a company-wide
basis if it is left to the experts.

 Using the traditional control techniques is NOT
the way to achieve quality.

 Quality is not the responsibility of the QC or QA
departments only.

 TQM is far more than shifting the responsibility of
detection of problems from the customer to the

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 3


The total quality management approach

 TQM requires a comprehensive approach that
must first be recognized and then implemented.

 Today, managers must plan strategically to
maintain a hold on market share, let alone
increase it.

 Consumers choice➔ quality or price?

 TQM is an approach to improving the
competitiveness, effectiveness and flexibility of a
whole organization.

 For an organization to be truly effective, each part
of it must work properly together towards the
same goals.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 4


The total quality management approach

 The methods and techniques used in TQM can be
applied throughout any organization (manufacturing,
public service, health care, education and hospitality

 Toward TQ, management must focus on
developing a problem-prevention mentality.

 Many people will need to undergo a
complete change of ‘mindset’.

 The correct mindset may be achieved by
looking at the sort of barriers that exist in
key areas.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 5


The total quality management approach

 Staff will need to be trained and shown how to
reallocate their time and energy to studying
their processes in teams, searching for causes of
problems, and correcting the causes, not the
symptoms➔ a positive management.

 The managements of many firms may think that
their scale of operation is not sufficiently large,
that their resources are too slim.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 6


Quality Assessment – Questions

Managers should examine the existing quality
performance by asking the following questions:

1. Is any attempt made to assess the costs arising
from errors, defects, waste, customer
complaints, lost sales, etc?

2. Are the organization’s quality systems-
documentation, procedures, operations etc-in
good order?

3. Have personnel been trained in how to prevent
errors and quality problems?

4. What is being done to motivate and train
employees to do work right first time?

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 7


Quality Assessment – Questions

 If satisfactory answers given to most of these
questions➔ an organization in the way to using
quality procedures and management.

 If answers to the previous questions indicate
problem areas, it will be beneficial to review the
top management’s attitude to quality.

 Time and money spent on quality-related
activities are not limitations of profitability.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 8


Ten Points for Senior Management –TQM Foundation

1. The Organisation needs long term commitment to

constant improvement.

2. Adopt the philosophy of zero errors/defects to change

the CULTURE to right first time.

3. Train the people to understand the CUSTOMER-

SUPPLIER relationship.

4. Do not buy products or services on price alone. Look at

the TOTAL cost.

5. Recognize that improvement of the SYSTEM needs to be


6. Adopt modern methods of SUPERVISION and

TRAINING – eliminate fear.
Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 9


Ten Points for Senior Management –TQM Foundation

7. Eliminate Barriers between departments by managing the

8. Eliminate the following:
• Arbitrary goals without methods,
•All Standards based only on numbers,
• Barriers to pride of workmanship,
•Get FACTS by Using the correct TOOLS.

9. Constantly educate and retrain – develop the EXPERTS in the

10. Develop a SYSTEMATIC approach to manage the implementation
of TQM.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 10


Leadership as a Major Component of TQM

Teach & Institute Leadership – Deming
◦ Leadership is management’s job.

◦ Most managers/supervisors do not truly know (how to
perform) the duties of the employees they supervise.

Three Steps to Quality – A.V. Feigenbaum
◦ Quality Leadership, with a strong focus on planning

◦ Modern Quality Technology, involving the entire work force

◦ Organizational Commitment, supported by continuous
training and motivation

Leadership can’t be delegated – Juran

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 11


Leadership as a Major Component of TQM

◦One of the main categories of Malcolm Baldrige
National Quality Award (leadership – 125

◦EFQM Model (Leadership – 10%)

◦ ISO 9000 Quality Management Principles
(leadership & people involvement)

◦British Model (TQM, combined with
effective leadership, results in an
organization doing the right things, first

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 12


Leadership as a Major Component of TQM

 Leaders must have (Yoshio Kondo)
◦ a dream (vision and shared goals)

◦ strength of will and tenacity of purpose

◦ ability to win the support of followers

◦ ability to do more than their followers,
without interfering when they can do it alone

◦ successes

◦ ability to give the right advice

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 13


Leadership & Commitment
 Leaders establish unity of purpose, direction, and internal

environment of the organization. They create the environment in
which people can become fully involved in achieving the
organization´s objectives.

• The ability of top management to establish, practice, and lead a
long-term vision for the firm, driven by changing customer
requirements, as opposed to an internal management control

• Lack of top management commitment is one of the reasons for
the failure of TQM efforts (Brown et al. 1994).

• A predominant requirement for quality management is that
strong commitment from top management is vital.

• To be an effective leader in most modern firms, the top manager
must continue to develop and learn.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 14


Leadership & Commitment

• Knowledge of the business and continual learning are essential
prerequisites to effective leadership (DuBrin, 1995).

• In order to effectively lead the firm, top management must be
committed to provide education and training to employees and
regarding them as valuable resources of the firm.

• Top management must be committed to allocating sufficient
resources to prevent, as well as repair, quality problems.

• Top management should discuss quality frequently; by having
session on the topic and asking questions about quality at every
staff meeting.

• Top management must train and coach employees to assess,
analyze, and improve work processes (Deming, 1986).

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 15


Characteristics of excellent leadership – Dr. Curt Reimann,
director of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

 Visible, committed, and knowledgeable — They
promote the emphasis on quality and know the details and
how well the company is doing. Personal involvement in
education, training, and recognition. Accessible to and
routine contact with employees, customers, and suppliers.

 A missionary zeal — The leaders are trying to effect as
much change as possible through their suppliers, through
the government, and through any other vehicle that
promotes quality. They are active in promoting quality
outside the company.

 Aggressive targets — Going beyond incremental
improvements and looking at the possibility of making
large gains, getting the whole work force thinking about
different processes — not just improving processes.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 16


Characteristics of excellent leadership – Dr. Curt Reimann,
director of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

 Strong drivers — Cycle time, zero defects, six sigma, or other
targets to drive improvements. Clearly defined customer
satisfaction andquality improvement objectives.

 Communication of values — Effecting cultural change related to
quality. Written policy, mission, guidelines, and other documented
statements of quality values, or other bases for clear and
consistent communications.

 Organization — Flat structures that allow more authority at lower
levels. Empowering employees. Managers as coaches rather than
bosses. Cross-functional management processes and focus on
internal as well as external customers. Interdepartmental
improvement teams.

 Customer contact — CEO and all senior managers are accessible to

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 17


Good Leaders

1. Give priority attention to customers and their needs

2. Empower, rather than control, subordinates.

3. Emphasize improvement rather than maintenance.

4. They emphasize prevention.

5. Encourage collaboration rather than competition.

6. They train and coach, rather than direct and


Total Quality Management – Spring 2010


Good Leaders

7. Learn from problems.

8. They continually try to improve communications.

9. They continually demonstrate their commitment to


10. Choose suppliers on the basis of quality, not price.

11. Establish organizational systems to support the

quality effort.

12. Encourage and recognize team effort.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 19


Role of TQM leaders
➢ All are responsible for quality improvement especially

the senior management & CEO’s
➢ Ensure that the team’s decision is in harmony with the

quality statements of the organization
➢ Senior TQM leaders must read TQM literature and

attend conferences to be aware of TQM tools and

➢ Senior managers must take part in award and
recognition ceremonies for celebrating the quality
successes of the organization

➢ Coaching others and teaching in TQM seminars
➢ Senior managers must liaise with internal ,external and

suppliers through visits, focus groups, surveys
➢ They must live and communicate TQM.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 20


Effective leadership
 Effective leadership starts with the Chief Executive’s vision,

capitalizing on market or service opportunities, continues
through a strategy that will give the organization
competitive advantage, and leads to business or service

 Together, effective leadership and TQM result in
the company or organization doing the right
things, right first time.

 The five requirements for effective leadership are
the following:

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 21


Effective leadership
1. Developing and publishing clear documented

corporate beliefs and objectives – a mission

The beliefs and objectives should address:
◦ The definition of the business.

◦ A commitment to effective leadership & Quality

◦ Target sectors and relationships with customers.

◦ Indications for future direction. (principal plans)

◦ Commitment to monitoring performance against customers’
needs and expectations, and continuous improvement.

2. Developing clear and effective strategies and
supporting plans for achieving the mission and

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 22


Effective leadership

3. Identifying the critical success factors and critical

4. Reviewing the management structure

5. Empowerment – encouraging effective employee

particular attention must be paid to the following:

A. Attitudes
◦ The key attitude for managing any winning organization may be

expressed as “I will personally understand who my customers are
and what are their needs and expectations of me”.

◦ This attitude must start at the top, then it must percolate down to
be adopted by every employee.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 23


Effective leadership

B. Abilities
◦ Every employee must be able to do what is needed and

expected of him or her.
◦ Training and its effectiveness

C. Participation
◦ For effective employees participation in making the company or

organization successful, employees must be trained to:

E Evaluate – the situation and define their objectives.

P Plan – to achieve those objectives fully.

D Do, implement the plans.

C Check – that the objectives are being achieved.

A Amend, take corrective action if they are not.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 24


Leadership: Guiding the Organization in the Pursuit of Excellence: Key Issues

❑ Is the leadership and ❑Are leaders actively engaged in

governance structure clearly campus activities?

defined and understood?
❑Are leaders actively engaged

❑Are senior leaders effective with public, professional, and/or

role models? academic groups?

❑Are ethics and integrity
❑Do leaders promote leadership

at all levels? emphasized?

❑Are the organization’s pertinent
❑Are leadership goals

established? legal and regulatory risks and
issues addressed?

❑Are there informal and formal
methods for reviewing ❑Do leaders encourage public

leadership and governance responsibility and attention to the

effectiveness throughout the organization’s impact on the

organization? physical and social environment?

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 25


Leadership benefits

 for policy and strategy formulation, establishing
and communicating a clear vision of the
organisation’s future;

 for goal and target setting, translating the vision
of the organisation into measurable goals and

 for operational management, empowered and
involved people achieve the organisation’s

 for human resource management, having an
empowered, motivated, well informed and stable

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 26



Why leadership for change?
• Eighty per cent of TQM initiatives fail because
they do not have the backing of the senior

• Commitment is the foundation of an effective
TQM initiative.

• Leadership is the key in promoting

• Leadership and commitment go hand in hand.
• TQM needs leaders who are committed to

Leadership for Total Quality – Total quality is
defined as “performance leadership in meeting
customer requirements by doing the right the
first time.”

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 27


Change Leadership

 The most challenging aspect of business is
leading and managing change

 The business environment is subject to fast-
paced economic and social change

 Modern business must adapt and be flexible to

 Problems in leading change stem mainly from
human resource management

 Leaders need to be aware of how change
impacts on workers

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 28


Leadership in TQM Role Model


Transformational leaders: They provide mission
for others to follow and they expect the same
high standards from their people. They are
interested in ‘ends’ rather than ‘means’.

Transactional managers: They are good at
achieving short-term results, foster teamwork
and work in a practical manner.
Evidently, transformational leaders and
transactional managers need to work together.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 29


Leadership Characteristics
Jim Collins, “Good To Great”

 Level One
◦ Highly capable
◦ Contributes through talent, knowledge, skills,

and good work habits
 Level Two
◦ Team member
◦ Contributes individual capabilities to the group

and works effectively with others
 Level Three
◦ Competent manager
◦ Organizes people and resources toward the

effective and efficient pursuit of predetermined

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 30


Leadership Characteristics
Jim Collins, “Good To Great”

 Level Four
◦ Catalyst leader

◦ Makes a commitment to and vigorous pursuit of
a clear and compelling vision, stimulating higher
performance standards

 Level Five
◦ Executive leader

◦ Builds enduring greatness through a paradoxical
blend of personal humility and professional will

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 31


How all leaders drive the organisation towards a position
of Business Excellence

Give & Receive

Develop Communicate
Goals Effectively


Make Recognition

Listen & Respond
to People

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 32


Comparison of Traditional Management and TQM

NAspect Traditional Management TQM

1. Quality definition (a) Products meet specifications. (a) Products fit for customer us.

(b) Focus on post-production (b) Focus on building quality into
inspection. the work process.

2. Customers Ambiguous understanding of Systematic approach to seek,
customer requirements. understand and satisfy

internal and external

3. Errors A certain margin of error, No tolerance for errors: do it
waste and rework is right the first time and
tolerable. every time approach.

4. Improvement Technological break-through Gradual but continuous
emphasis such as automation. improvement of each


5. Problem solving Unstructured problem solving Participative and disciplined
and decision making by problem solving and
individual managers and decision making based
specialists. on hard data.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 33



 Evidence suggests that those companies with strategies based
on TQM have achieved stunning successes.

 Most of these successful companies will attribute their progress
to a quality-based strategy that was developed through a formal
structured approach to planning.

 Total Quality begins with a strategic decision — a decision that
can only be made by top management — and that decision,
simply put, is the decision to compete as a world-class company.
Total Quality concentrates on quality performance — in every
facet of the business — and the primary strategy to achieve and
maintain competitive advantage. It requires taking a sys-tematic
look at an organization — looking at how each part interrelates
to the whole process. In addition, it demands continuous
improvement as a “way of life.”

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 34



Professors Andrews, Christensen, and others in
the Policy group at the Harvard Business
School argue that corporate strategy is the
pattern of decisions in a company that:

(1) determines, shapes, and reveals its objectives,
purposes, or goals;

(2) produces the principal policies and plans for
achieving these goals; and

(3) defines the business the company intends to be in,
the kind of economic and human organization it
intends to be, and the nature of the economic and
non economic contribution it intends to make to
its shareholders, employees, customers, and

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 35



Michael Porter describes the development
of a competitive strategy as “a broad
formula for how a business is going to
compete, what its goals should be, and what
policies will be needed to carry out those

Strategic Planning is a deliberate process
used by organizations to develop a mission,
vision, guiding values, strategic objectives,
and specific strategies for achieving the

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 36


Strategic Planning

Strategic business planning is similar to strategic
quality planning.

7 steps to strategic planning
1. Customer needs
2. Customer positioning
3. Predict the future
4. Gap analysis
5. Closing the gap
6. Alignment
7. Implementation

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 37


TQM – Strategy Approach
 an approach to improving the competitiveness,

effectiveness and flexibility of a whole
organisation….. a way of planning, organising and
understanding each activity and it depends on
each individual at each level. TQM is a way of ……
bringing everyone into the processes of
improvement (Oakland 1995)

 a TQM programme promotes “quality” as a
strategic imperative. Comprehensive TQM
programme requires re-evaluation how
organisational members address the quality of
their work and production /service processes.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 38


TQM supported by policy commitment

 culture & practice
 change strategy & organisational renewal
 injection of energy
 staff encouraged to practice positive, initiative taking

 a prevention ethic
 quality improvement teams/circles
 use of methods and techniques (tools)

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 39


The organisations mission, values, strategic direction & the
manner in which it achieves them

Customers Suppliers

Use Appropriate
Benchmarking Legislation




Targets to all

Strategy &

Review &
Develop Improve


Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 40


strategic intent Strategic


organizational mission Process

Analyze environment

Set objectives

Determine requirements


Develop action plans

Implement plans

Planning Feedback

Monitor outcomes

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 41



& &


Factors Factors

Internal COMPETITIVE External

to the STRATEGY to the

Company Company



Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 42


Objective Setting through SWOT


Internal Strengths Weaknesses

External Opportunities Threats

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 43



Following a SWOT analysis, the strategic plan
will involve a process to search for the answers
to the following questions:

1. Who are we?
2. What are we known for?
3. What do we do better than 90% of our

4. What do our competitors beat us on?
5. What do we wish to be known for?
6. Where are we headed as an organization?
7. Where do we wish to be headed?
8. How would we get there?
9. What would it take to get us there?

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 44


Components of Strategy

The major role that quality plays in strategic
planning can best be understood by examining
the components of a strategy:
◦ Mission, vision, and guiding values

◦ Product/market scope

◦ Competitive edge (differentiation)

◦ Supporting policies

◦ Objectives

◦ Organizational culture

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 45


Quality statements


 The quality statements include the vision
statement, mission statement, and quality
policy statement.

 Once developed, they are only occasionally
reviewed and updated. They are part of the
strategic planning process.

 There may be considerable overlap among
the three statements.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 46


Quality statements

Vision statement- a short declaration of
what the organization hopes to be

Mission statement – a statement of
purpose –who we are, who are our
customers, what we do , and how we do it.

Quality policy – is a guide for everyone in
the organization ,how they should provide
products and services to the customers.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 47


Quality Statements

1. Vision statement :is the declaration of what an
organization should look like five to ten years in the

2. Mission statement : answers the questions that who
we are ,who are the customers ,what we do and how we
do it. This statement is usually one paragraph or less in
length ,is easy to understand and describes the function
of the organization.

3. Quality policy statement : is a guide for everyone in
the organization as to how they should provide products
and service to the customers

It should be written by CEO with feed back from work force and be approved by
quality council.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 48



 The major determinant of a mission is the

environment in which the firm plans to
operate: the general environment, the industry
environment, and the competitive
environment. Strategy is essentially the
process of positioning oneself in that
environment as trends and changes unfold.
Thus, it is necessary to identify trends in the
environment and how they affect the strategy
of the firm.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 49



Product/Market Scope
 This answers the questions: What am I selling

and to whom am I selling it? The answers are
more complex than they appear.

 in today’s heightened competitive environment,
a product or service is not simply sold to
anyone who will buy it.

 To be effective, value must be sold to a
particular market or customer segment.

 Strategic planning involves the determination
of these strategy components, and quality plays
a major role in this process.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 50


Vision statement:
 A short declaration of what an organization aspires to be

in the future. It is an ideal state that an organization
continually strives to achieve. It is timeless, inspirational,
and becomes deeply shared within the organization.

 Successful vision – a concise statement of the desired end
– provides a succinct guideline for sound decision making.

 Although mission and vision are often used as
synonymous, sometimes a distinction is made in which
case mission evolves from the vision.

 Example:“We will be the provider of safe, reliable, cost-effective
products and services that satisfy the electric-related needs of all
customer segments.” [Florida Power & Light Company].

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 51


Vision statement:

 A vision reflects where the organization is
headed or wishes to be. It is like a
destination dreamed up by the organization.
Every decision made by the organization
must be informed by its vision. An

vision must come from top management, and
must be well articulated and understood by
all. The guiding values reflect the beliefs that
shape and mold the decisions and choices an
organization makes.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 52


Mission statement:
 The mission statement answers the following

questions: who we are, who are our customers,
what we do, and how we do it.

 This statement is usually one paragraph or less
in length, is easy to understand, and describes
the function of the organization. It provides a
clear statement of purpose for employees,
customers, and suppliers.

Example:“Our mission is to improve continually our
products and services to meet our customers’ needs,
allowing us to prosper as a business and provide a reasonable
return to our shareholders.” [Ford Motor Company].

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 53


Mission statement:

The mission is the primary overall purpose
of an organization and its expressed reason
for existence. The simplest statement of
mission might be to “meet the needs/values
of constituents.”
Example: The mission of NCR is stated simply: “Create Value for
Our Stakeholders.” Stakeholders are identified as employees,
shareholders, suppliers, communities, and customers.13 The
mission can be operationalized by statements of how it will be
implemented for each stakeholder.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 54


Mission & Vision

 If the vision deals with ‘what’, the mission deals
with ‘why’ and ‘how’. It identifies the roles or
activities to which an organization is committed
and provides overall direction for achieving the

 The mission provides the guide map, milestones
for achieving the vision.

Example: “To be the leading manufacturer and
supplier of measurement and computing solutions
whilst achieving the highest levels of customer
satisfaction, quality, and business ethics and
contributing to India’s technological, economic and
social needs.” [Hewlett-Packard India].

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 55


Quality policy statement:

 The quality policy is a guide for everyone in the

organization as to how they should provide
products/service to the customers. It is written
after obtaining feedback from the workforce and
is approved by the quality council.

 A quality policy is a requirement of ISO9000.
 Some common characteristics are:
‘Quality is first priority’; ‘Continually improve the

quality’; ‘Equal or exceed the competition’; ‘Meet
the needs of internal and external customers’, etc.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 56


Quality policy statement:

 Example: “Xerox is a quality company. Quality is
the basic business principle of Xerox. Quality
means providing our external and internal
customers with innovative products and
services that fully satisfy their requirements.
Quality is the job of every employee.” [Xerox

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 57


Vision & Plan Statement

Vision statement describes how a firm wants to be seen in its chosen
business. Vision describes standards, values, and beliefs of the

Intent of a vision statement is to communicate the firm’s values,
aspirations and purpose, so that employees can make decisions that
are consistent with and supportive of these objectives.

Plan statement is a detailed road map of actions; what and how
organization intended execute that plan in future.

Organization may have many kinds of plan;
– Strategic business performance plan
– Quality goal plan
– Quality improvement plan

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 58


Vision & Plan Statement

Strategic business performance plan can be divided into long- and
short-term business performance plans that include, for example,
market share, profits, annual sales, exports, and sales growth.

Quality goal plan can involve, for example, conformity rate, defect
rate, internal failure costs, external failure costs, performance,
reliability, and durability.

Quality improvement plan aims for quality improvement, which are
actions taken throughout the organization to increase the
effectiveness and efficiency of activities and processes in order to
provide added benefits to both the organization and its customers
(ISO 8402, 1994).

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 59


Strategic Quality Goals and Objectives

❖Goals must be focused

❖Goals must be concrete

❖Goals must be based on statistical evidence

❖Goals must have a plan or method with

❖Goals must have a time-frame

❖Goals must be challenging yet achievable

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 60


Top Management Commitment

 Above all, demonstration of commitment
by top management is essential. This
commitment is demonstrated by behaviors
and activities that are exhibited throughout
the company. Categories of behaviors
include the following:
◦ Signaling — Make statements or take actions

that support the vision of quality, such as
mission statements, creeds, or charters
directed toward customer satisfaction. Publix
supermarkets’ “Where shopping is a pleasure”
and JC Penney’s “The customer is always right”
are examples of such statements.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 61


Top Management Commitment

 Focus — Every employee must know the mission,
his or her part in it, and what has to be done to
achieve it. What management pays attention to and
how management reacts to crisis is indicative of
this focus. When all functions and systems are
aligned and when practice supports the culture,
everyone is more likely to support the vision.
Johnson and Johnson’s cool reaction to the Tylenol
scare is such an example.

 Employee policies — These may be the clearest
expression of culture, at least from the viewpoint
of the employee. A culture of quality can be easily
demonstrated in such policies as the reward and
promotion system, status symbols, and other
human resource actions.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 62


Commitment and policy

 TQM must start at the top with the chief
Executive or equivalent.

 The Leader (Top Management) is responsible for
coordination the work between the different departments
in the company (Marketing, Design Production, Purchasing,
Distribution, and Service Functions).

 The middle management must explain the
principles of TQM to the people for whom they are
responsible, and ensure that their own
commitment is communicated.

 The chief Executive must accept the responsibility
for and commitment to a quality policy in which he
must really believe.

 Within each and every department of the
organization at all levels, starting at the top, basic
changes of attitude will be required to operate

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 63


Commitment and policy
 Controls, systems and techniques are very

important in TQM, but they are not the primary

 TQM requires from the management total
commitment, which must then be extended to all
employees at all levels and in all departments.

 Going into organizations sporting poster-
campaigning for quality instead of belief, one is
quickly able to detect the falseness.

 The opposite is an organization where TQ means
something, can be seen, heard, felt.

 Commitment is an essential element of a TQM
drive. Commitment must exist at every level. it is
adherence to plans, principles and procedures.

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 64


Supporting Policies

 Policies are guidelines for action and
decision making that facilitate the
attainment of objectives. Taken together, a
company’s policies delineate its strategy
fairly well. Tell me your policies and I can
tell you your strategy.

 A firm’s policy choices are essential as
drivers of differentiation. They determine
what activities to perform and how to
perform them.

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Supporting Policies

The role of policies as a critical element of strategy is
displayed in the policy wheel.

 In the center are the mission (the purpose of the
organization), the differentiation (how to compete in
the market), and the key objectives of the business.
The spokes of the wheel represent the functions of
the business.

Each function requires supporting policies (functional
strategies) to achieve the hub. If the firm’s strategy
calls for competing on quality, then this becomes the
impetus for policy determination.

Each functional policy supports this central strategy
and the objectives that are determined during the
planning process.

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Supporting Policies

The quality policy:
 Every organization should develop and state its

policy on quality, together with arrangements for
its implementation.

 The contents of the policy should be made known
to all employees.

 Management must be dedicated to the regular
improvement of quality, not simply a one-step
improvement to an acceptable plateau.

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Supporting Policies

 Ideas must be set out in a quality policy that
requires top management to:

1. Establish an ‘organization’ for quality.

2. Identify customer’s needs and perception of needs

3. Assess the ability of the organization to meet these needs

4. Ensure that bought-in materials and services reliably meet the
required standards of performance and efficiency.

5. Concentrate on the prevention rather than detection philosophy.

6. Educate and train for quality improvement.

7. Review the quality management systems to maintain progress.

 The quality policy must be publicized and
understood at all levels of the organization.

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Elements of a Quality Policy
 organisation structure for quality: roles, responsibilities
 how client/customer needs & perceptions are identified
 product-service development
 technical/economic resource allocation
 QMS scheme & operation
 how suppliers & supplies are required to meet standards
 prevention & zero defects
 communication, knowledge, information & staff

 audit of QMS in operation
 partnership with staff, customers & suppliers.
 physical manifestation not just conceptual

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 Michael Porter, in his landmark book Competitive Strategy, identified

two generic competitive strategies:
(1) overall cost leadership and
(2) differentiation.

 Cost leadership in turn can be broad in market scope (e.g., Ivory Soap,
Emerson Electric, Black & Decker) or market segment focused (e.g.,
La Quinta Motels, Porter Paint).

 The second strategy involves differentiating the product or service by
creating something that is perceived by the buyer as unique.

 Differentiation, frequently called the competitive edge, answers the
question: Why should I buy from you?

 Differentiation can also be broad in scope (American Airlines in on-
time service, Caterpillar for spare parts support) or focused (e.g.,
Godiva chocolates, Mercedes automobiles).

 Thus, there are four generic strategies, but each depends on
something different — something unique or distinguishing. Even an
effective cost leadership strategy must start with a good product.

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◦Differentiation may depend on one or more or a
combination of Quality dimensions (Performance,
Features, Reliability, Conformance, Durability,
Serviceability, Aesthetics, Perceived quality);

◦ but the point is that when differentiating based on
quality, quality must be defined in terms that meet
customer expectations, even if this is only what the
customer perceives as quality.

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Market Segmentation (Niche) Quality

 Quality means different things to different
people. In terms of strategic quality
management, this means that the firm must
define that segment of the industry, that
generic strategy, and that particular
customer group which it intends to pursue.
This can be called a segmented quality

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Finance &



R & D Distribution

Purchasing Mfging


Competitive Strategy is a combination of the Ends (Goals) for which the
firm is striving and the Means (Policies) by which is it seeking to get

Total Quality Management – Spring 2010 1


Summary Slide

 The following Slides are for understanding
only (subject to indirect Questions): “

 Other slides are required and subjects to
any type of Questions

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