Anthrax bacteria in microbiology

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Robert Koch – First time isolated in pure culture.

• Louis pasture- Prepare Attenuated vaccine

• This genus contains number of species, which are found in air,

soil, dust, water etc.

Most important species:

B.anthracis, – Anthrax

B.cereus, – Food poision in human

B.piliformis-Tyzzer’s Disease

B.licheniformis- Sporodic abortion





➢ Malignant Pustule,

➢ Malignant Edema,

➢ Woolsorters’ Disease,

◼ Anthrax is a severe zoonotic disease that affect all

mammalian species

◼ The disease occur world wise

◼ Ruminant are highly susceptible

◼ Pig and Horses are moderately susceptible

◼ Carnivores are comparatively resistant

◼ Birds are totally resistant

– BHI- Flat Dry, Opaque just like

 (Ground glass like appearance)

Gelatine stab- Invert fir tree type growth

➢ It produce exotoxin.

➢ which is protein in nature

• Factor I: (Oedema factor),

• Factor II: (Protective antigen)

• Factor III: (lethal factor)

Production of the anthrax toxin is mediated by a

temperature-sensitive plasmid termed as pX01.

◼ Per acute-

➢ Sudden death without any symptom

➢ Splenomegaly

➢ Body cavity filled with uncloatted blood

❑ Acute-

➢ Increase body temp (108 F).

➢ Anorexia

➢ Blood oozing from natural orifice

(Nostrile, Anus, Mouth)


◼ Is always acute.

◼ When infection is by ingestion there is septicemia with enteritis &

colic with the passage of bloody faeces

◼ When infection is by insect transmission, hot painful, edematous,

subcutaneous swellings appear at the throat, lower neck, floor of

the thorax and abdomen, prepuce & mammary gland

◼ There is high fever and severe depression & dyspnoea due to

swelling of the throat or colic due to intestinal irritation. The

course is usually 48-96 hours. Rapid pulse & respiration

◼ Hyperaemic or cyanotic mucous membrane