Carbohydrates containing drugs



➢Guar gum


➢Sodium alginate


➢Acacia 2



• Synonyms:

Madhu, honey purified, mel shehad, asal

• Biological source:

Sugar secretion, deposited in honey comb by bees, Apis melifera, Apis

dorsata & other species of Apis

• Family: apidae

• Geographical sources:

Africa, Australia, New Zealand, California and India 3 4



• The nectar of the flower is a watery solution containing 25%

sucrose and 75% water.

• The worker bee sucks this nectar through its hollow tube of

mouth (proboscis) and deposits in honey-sac located in


• The enzyme invertase present in saliva of the bee converts

nectar into invert sugar, which is partially utilized by the bee

and the remaining is deposited into honey comb. 5



• Honey comb is smoked to remove the bees and honey is obtained

by applying the pressure to it or allowing it to drain naturally.

• The honey of commerce is heated to 80oC and allowed to stand.

• The impurities which float over the surface are skimmed off and

liquid diluted with water to produce honey of 1.35 density.

• Natural honey has the density of 1.47. 6


• Many a time, honey is extracted from the comb by


• It must be free from foreign substances.

• Honey is liable to fermentation, unless it is suitable processed.

• Honey is heated to 80oC before it is sent to the market, so as to

avoid fermentation.

• It should be cooled rapidly or else it darkens in color on keeping.

• If necessary (and if not prepared by centrifugation method),

honey is required to be filtered through wet cloth or flannel. 7


• Colour- Pale yellow-yellowish brown

• Odour- Characteristics & pleasant odour

• Taste- Sweet & faintly acid taste

• Density – 1.35wt/ml

• Specific Rotation – +30 to -100

• Total ash: 0.1 to 0.8%

• Pass limit test Cl & SO4

• Syrupy Thick liquid, Translucent when fresh & o keeping it

becomes opaque & granular due to crystallisation of glucose

• Soluble in – water, Insoluble in – alcohol 8


Chemical constituents
• It is an aqueous solution of

• Glucose 35% (+ or – 3%),

• fructose 45% (+ or – 5%) and

• sucrose about 2%.

• Maltose, gum, traces of succinic acid, acetic acid, dextrin,

formic acid.

• Coloring matters, enzymes (invertase, diastase, inulase) and

traces of vitamins.

• Proteins and pollen grains from various flower 9



• Demulcent

• Sweetening agent

• Nutrient – infants & patients

• Antiseptic – burns & wounds

• Common ingredient – cough mixture, cough drops &

vehicle for ayurvedic preparation

• Used in the preparation of creams, lotions, soft drinks,

candies 10


e.g. Starch, Dextrin



• Primary product of photosynthesis

• Synonym:

Amylum 12


Biological source

• It is the most common carbohydrate reserve and is

food in varying amounts in almost all plant members.

• It is commercially obtained from the following raw materials

• Maize – Zea mays

• Rice – Oryza sativa

• Wheat – Triticum aestivum (gramineae)

• Potato – Solanum tuberosum (solanaceae)

Geographical Source:

tropical & sub tropical countries 13



Depending upon the raw material to be used for processing or

type of the starch to be produced different process are used for

the commercial manufacture of starch. 14



• Potato starch :- The potatoes are washed to remove the earthy

matter. They are crushed or cut and converted into a slurry.

• Slurry is filtered to remove the cellular matter.

• As potatoes do not contain gluten they are very easy to process


• After filtration, the milky slurry containing starch is

purified by centrifugation and washing.

• Then it is dried and sent to the market. 15


Rice Starch :-

• The broken species of rice resulted during the polishing are used

for processing.

• The pieces of rice are soaked in water with dilute sod. Hydroxide

soln.{.5%}, which causes softening and dissolution of the gluten.

• After this, the soaked rice pieces are crushed and starch

prepared as described under potato starch 16


Maize Starch [Corn Starch] :-

• Maize grains are wash thoroughly with water to remove the

adhered organic matter after which they are soften by keeping in

warm water for 2-3 days.

• Sufficient sulphur dioxide is passed to the medium to prevent


• The swollen kernels are passed through attrition mill to break the

grains so as to separate endosperm and outermost coating of

grains. At this point special attention is given to

separate the germ{Embryo}. 17


• This is effected by addition of water where in germs float and are


• The water which is used to soften the grains dissolves most of

the minerals, soluble proteins and carbohydrates from the grains.

• Water being rich in all this contents is used as a culture medium

for the production of antibiotics like penicillin. 18


• The separated germs are used to prepare the germ oil by

expression method known as corn oil.

• The oil contains fatty acids like inoleic and

linoleic acids and vit E.

• It is used commercially for preparing soap.

• The starchy material contains gluten of this is

removed by simple sieving and then by washing. 19


• Starch being heavier, settles at the bottom and is followed by


• Several treatments with cold water wash the starch effectively,

which is then centrifuge or filter-pressed and finally, dried in

flash dryers on a moving belt dryer. 20


Wheat starch :-

• Wheat flour is converted into dough and kept for a while

• The gluten in the dough swells and the masses are taken to

grooved rollers wherein water is poured over them with constant


• The starchy liquid coming out of the rollers processed

conveniently to take out starch which is then dried and packed

suitably. 21



• Fine powder or irregular, angular masses readily reducible to


• Colour: rice-white, wheat- cream, potato- slightly yellowish

• Odour: Odourless

• Taste: Mucilagenous

• Insoluble in cold water & alcohol

• Ash – not more than 0.3% for potato, wheat & maize

not more than 0.6% – rice

• Loss on drying– not more than 15% rice, wheat & maize

not more twhwawn.D2u0lo%Mixp.cootmato 22


Microscopic characters

1. Rice starch: The granules are simple or compound.

Simple (polyhedral), 2-12 micron dia. or

compound (ovoid-egg shaped) 12-30 x7-12µ. They may contain 2-

150 components. 23


2.Wheat starch: simple lenticular ( shape like biconvex lens)

granule, circular or oval in shape, 5-50µ dia., hilum ( point in a

starch granule around which the layers of starch are deposited) –

centre & concentric faintly marked striations. 2- 4 components are

observed. 24


3. Maize starch: polyhedral or rounded granule, 5- 31 dia., with

distinct cavity in the centre 25


4. Potato starch: simple granule – sub spherical, ovoid, sizes

vary from 30- 100 µ, hilum is present near the narrower end with

marked concentric striation (number of tiny parallel grooves,

scratches) 26


Chemical constituent

• Chemically it contains two different polysaccharides viz.

amylose (β-amylose) and amylopectin (α-amylose).

•Amylose is water soluble and amylopectin is water- insoluble

•Amylose gives blue colour with iodine, while amylopectin gives

bluish black colouration. 27



1) Boil 1 g of starch with 15 ml of water and cooled. The

translucent viscous jelly is produced.

2) The above jelly turns deep blue by the addition the solution

of iodine.

The blue colour disappears on warming and reappears on cooling. 28


• Nutrient, demulcent, protective, adsorbent

• In preparation of dusting talcum powder – skin

• Antidote in I2 poisoning

• Disintegrating agent in pills & tablets

• Diluent in dry extraction

• Diagnostic aid – identification of crude drugs

• Glycerine of starch – emollient & as a base suppositories

• Starting material for mfg. of liquid Glucose, dextrose,


• Industry – for sizing of paper & cloth 29


Substitutes and Adulterant:

Tapioca starch or cassava or Brazilian arrow root, this

starch obtained from manihot esculenta (euphorbiaceae 30



Synonyms: Agar-agar, Vegetable Gelatin, Japanese or Chinese

Gelatin, Japanese Isinglass.

Biological Source: It is the bleached, dried gelatinous substance

obtained from the various species of the genus Gelidium, family


Japanese agar is obtained from Gelidium amansii. 31


• It is also obtained from several other species of red algae like

genus Gracilaria (Gracilariaceae) and pterocladia


Geographical Sources:

Japan, Australia, new zealand, USA and India

India: coastal region of bay of bengal 32


Collection and Preparation:

In the coastal area of Japan, the algae are cultivated in special

areas. The poles are planted in the sea to form supports for the

development of algae.

The poles are withdrawn from time to time and the algae are

stripped off in the months from May to October.

The sea weeds are scrapped from the bamboos. The algae are

dried, beaten and shaken to remove any earthy material adhering

to it like shells, sand, etc. 33


• It is then bleached by watering and drying in the sun. The

algae are then boiled with acidulated water for several hours.

• A mucilaginous decoction is formed, which is filtered while

hot through a linen cloth. On cooling, a jelly is produced which

is cut into bars and subsequently strips are produced.

• The manufacturing of agar takes place only in winter season.

The moisture is removed by freezing, thawing and drying at

about 35 ° C.

• In America, the modern method deep- freezing is being

utilized. 34


Morphological Characters:

Color: yellowish grey or white to nearly colorless.

Odor: odourless

Taste: mucilaginous

Shape: occurs in two forms:

1) Coarse powder or flakes

2) bundles of translucent, and crumpled, strips, 2-5mm wide. 35


• Size: Sheets – 45 to 60 cm long, 10-15 cm wide. Bands – 4 cm

wide, Strips – 4 mm width, Strips – translucent, lustrous &


• Fracture: Tough when damp and brittle when dry.

• insoluble in water, slowly soluble in hot water;

& insoluble in organic solvents 36



• Acid-insoluble ash – not more than 1.0%

• Sulphated ash – not more than 5.0%

• Foreign organic matter – not more than 1.0%

• L.O.D. – not more than 18.0%

• Starch – negative with I2 solution 37


Chemical Constituents:

• It is a heterogeneous polysaccharide composed of two

principal constituents: agarose and agaropectin.

• Agarose represents the gel strength and agaropectin is

responsible for the viscosity of the agar solutions.

• Agarose: D-galactose & 3.6 anhydro L-galactose units. It

contaiins about 3.5% cellulose & 6% N containing subs. 38


Agaropectin: sulphonated polysaccharides in which

galactose and uronic acid units are partly esterified with

sulphuric acid. 39


Identification test

1. Boil 1.5 g agar with 100 ml water. Cool the solution to room

temp. it forms stiff jelly.

2. To 5ml of 0.5% solution of drug in water + 0.5ml of HCl +

heat on a water bath for about 30 min. neutralize the solution

and divide it into two portions. 40


To one portion, add Fehling’s solution and heat on a water bath, a

red precipitate is formed.

To other portion, add solution of BaCl2. A slight, white

precipitate is formed (tragacanth gives no precipitate) (on

hydrolyzing, galactose and sulphate ions are produced, former

reducing Fehling’s solution and the latter precipitating with

BaCl2) 41


3. Moisten the drug with a solution of Ruthenium red, a pink color is


4. Agar+M/20 iodine solution-Deep crimson (deep red color) to

brown colour (differentiates it from accacia and tragacanth)

5. Agar does not contain N so the following tests of gelatin are


a. Heated with soda-lime No ammonia is

b. 0.2% solution of agar with No ppt
tannic acid solution.

c. Millon’s reagent.
No precipitate 42


• Demulcent, nutrient and emulsifier

• The gels of pure agarose are used for the

electrophoresis of proteins.

• For the preparation of culture media

• Emulsifying agent

• In the treatment of constipation the action depends on its

property of absorbing and holding water, along with it becoming a


• In affinity chromatography 43


• In Japan and China long esteemed as a food in

making jellies and candy; thickening soups, ice

cream, fruits, meats, fish, etc.

• Impression material in dentistry

• It is a valuable dressing for wounds 44


Guar gum

Jaguar gum, guar flour

Biological source

It is obtained from the endosperm of the seeds of Cyamopsis

tetragonolobus belonging to

Family: Leguminosae

Geographical sources:

India, Pakistan, USA, Africa, Australia. In India it is cultivated

in Maharashtra, Gujarawt,wwK.DaurlnoaMtaixk.cao,mRajasthan 45


Guar gum seeds

Guar gum 46



• Gum is present in the endosperm of the seed.

• Seed consists of 14-17% husk, 35-40% endosperm

and 45-50% cotyledons containing embryo.

• It is prepared from the white well developed seeds.

• Seeds are from foreign matter. 47


• Seeds are put into a frinder to get bifurcated guar seeds. Seeds are

separated into husk and cotyledons containing embryo.

• Cotyledons separated from the endosperm by winnowing and

sifting fetch very high prince in the marked as a cattle feed.

• The endosperms. i.e. crude guar gum is pulverised by the means

of micro-pulverizer and grinding for 15 min. The endosperm

being harder is not affected by micro- pulverizer. The portion of

cotyledons adhering to the endosperm is soft. 48


And is converted into fine powder which is separated by sifting.

The crude guar gum is now free of cotyledons, the main

impurity is the gum.

The crude guar gum thus separated is put into pulverizer and

grinding is continued for 3-4 hours followed by sifting.

This process is repeated about 5 to 6 times for several hours to give

white colored guar gum. Finally, it is sifted through sieves of 40

to 60 mesh to give granular and powdered gum. 49


Chemical constituents

• It is divided into water soluble and water insoluble parts.

• Water soluble fraction consist of about 85% of gum is know as

guaran, which on hydrolysis yields 65% galactose and 35%

mannose which is combined by glycosidic linkage.

• It also contains 5-7% proteins. 50


Identification tests

1) Guar gum + weak solution of iodine—no olive green color.

2) Guar gum + solution of ruthenium red— the gummy solution

does not acquire pink color (distinction from agar and sterculia


3) Guar gum + About 2% solution of lead acetate—gives precipitate

with the solution of guar gum.

4) Dissolve 0.5gm of guar gum in 20ml of water by shaking. To it,

add 0.5 ml. hydrogen peroxide and 0.5ml. 1% solution of

benzidine in alcohol. No blue color is produced (distinction from

gum acacia). 51



Medicinal uses:

• Appetite suppressant and bulk laxative

• Treatment of peptic ulcer

• Oral hypoglycemic agent

• Antihyperlipidemic agent 52


Industrial uses:

• Thickening agent and emulsifying agent as thickening power of

guar gum is 5-8 times more than starch

• Binder and disintegrating agent for tablets.

• Food processing, printing, polishing and textile industries

• Paper industries 53




Gum Tragacanth, Gummi Tragacanthae, Gum Dragon

Greek – tragos (goat) & akantha (horn)

Biological source

Dried gummy exudation obtained by incision from stem &

branches of Astragalus gummifer & other species of Astragalus

Family: Leguminosae 54 55 56


Geographical sources

Indigenous – iran, greece, turkey, iraq, syria

India – Garhwal, Kumaon, Central Punjab, North syria &

Iran – supply Persian Tragacanth

Smyrna tragacanth – exported from Smyrna port in Asiatic Turkey 57



• Shrub – thorny

• Altitude: 1000-3000m

• Gum exuding out immediately after injury

• Tragacanth gum is formed as a result of transformation of the cells

of pith and medullary rays into gummy substance incisions are

more on various parts of stem and fluid which oozes out is

collected after drying. 58


• Tragacanth is found in irregular flattened flakes with ribbon

like appearance depending upon the incision’s made on the

plant. It is collected from April to November every year. 59


Morphological characteristics
• Flakes – white or pale yellowish white

• Size: 25x12x2 mm in size

• Shape: thin, flattened ribbon like flakes, more or less curved

• Odour: odourless

• Taste: mucilaginous

• Horny, translucent with transverse & longitudinal ridges

• Fracture: short

• Soluble in Water–swells to homogenous, adhesive & gelatinous


• Insoluble in alcohol 60


Chemical constituents

• It contains water soluble portion of Tragacanth which is know as

tragacathin, constituting about 8 – 10 % gum. With water

insoluble portion is know as bassorin(60 – 70%).

• Contain 15% methoxy group which swells in water

• The product of hydrolysis of tragacath are galacto uronic acid,

D-galactopyranose, L-arabino-rhamnose and D- xylopyranose. 61


• Sulphated ash – not more than 4.0%

• Foreign organic matter – not more than 1.0%

• Moisture content – not more than 15.0% 62


Identification tests

1) When solution of tragacanth is boiled with few drops of 10%

aqueous ferric chloride solution deep yellow ppt is formed.

2) A stringy ppt is formed by dissolving tragacanth and ppted

copper oxide in conc. ammonium hydroxide

3) When it is warmed with sodium hydroxide solution canary

yellow colour is developed with strong iodine solution it gives

green colour. 63



• Demulcent, emolient

• Modern pharmaceutical uses include an adhesive agent for

pills and tablets

• Binding agent for tablets & excipients in pills

• Emulsifying oil droplets in lotions, creams and pastes.

• Thickening agent, suspending agent with acacia 64


• Preparation of cosmetics and toothpaste to jellies and salad


• It is also used in syrups, sauces, liqueurs, candy, ice cream.

• Industrial uses, including cloth finishing, printing and

waterproofing of fabrics. 65



Synonym: Algin, sod. Polymannuronate

Biological source

• Sodium alginate – sodium salt of alginic acid

• alginic acid – polyuronic acid composed of reduced

mannuronic and glucoronic acid – obtain from algal growth

of species of family: Phaeophyceae

• Common species – macrocystis pyrifera, laminaria

hyperborea, laminaria digitata, ascohyllum nodosum

• It is purified carbohydrate extracted from brown sea weed

(algae) by treatment of dilute alkali 66 67


Geographical source

Atlantic & pacific oceans, coastal lines of japan, USA, canada,

australia & scotland

India – near coast of saurashtra, largest production – USA & UK


• Discovered by stanford in 1880, first production begin in 1929

in USA, since than produced in UK, france, norway & japan

• Present algin production more than 15000 tonnes per annum 68


• The brown coloured algae is used for extraction of alginic acid.

• The colour is due to carotenoid pigment present in it.

• Alginic acid is present in the cell wall.

• The sea weeds are harvested, dried, milled and extracted with dil.

Sodium carbonate solution which results in a pasty mass.

• It is then diluted to separated insoluble matter. 69


• Soft water is only used for extraction purposes., so as to avoid in


• It is treated with calcium chloride or sulphuric acid for conversion

into either calcium alginate or insoluble alginic acid, which is

collected and purified by thorough washing.

• If calcium is used, it is treated with HCL. Alginic acid so collected

is treated with sodium carbonate for neutralization and conversion

into sodium salt. 70



• Colour: white to buff

• Odourless

• Tasteless

• Coarse or fine powder

• Loose of 20% its wt. on drying

• Incompatible with Ca salt, phenyl mercuric acetate & nitrate,

crystal violet, alcohol in conc. above 5% & heavy metals 71


• Precipitate below pH 3

• Alginic acid- linear co-polymer, contain D-mannopyranosyluronic

acid linked with L- glucopyranosyluronic unit

• Soluble in water

• Insoluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform & strong acids 72


Identification tests:

1) The aqueous solution of sodium alginate forms

copious ppt with calcium chloride solution.

2) 1% solution in water forms heavy geltinous ppt

with dil. Sulphuric acid. 73



• Preparations of paste, cream

• Thickening & stabilising emulsion

• Good suspending & thickening agent but poor emulsifying


• Binding & disintegrating agent in tablets & lozenges

• Food industry – preparation of jellies, ice creams, etc.

• Textile industry 74


• It is sterilize by autoclave – pharmaceutical purpose

• Not stored in metal container

• Preserved by addition of 0.1% of chloroxylenol, chlorocresol,

benzoic acid or parabens

• K, Al, Ca alginates – medicinally 75



• Pectin are polyuronides and consist of mixture of pectic

substances like protopectin, pectin, pectinic acid and calcium


• They are obtained from the inner portion of the rind of citrus

fruits or other vegetative matter, such as sun-flower, papaya, etc. 76 77


Manufacture of pectin
• The preserved or fresh lemon peels are heated with 20 times its

weight of water at 90oC for 30 min.

• The pH required for maximum extraction is 3.5 to 4.0. The pH

can be adjusted by lactic citric or tartaric acids.

• The peels after boiling are pressed and solution is

cleared by settling or centrifugation. 78


• Starch, and proteins are removed by suitable Enzymic hydrolysis

and the solution is heated to deactivate the enzymes and

decolorized with active carbon or any other suitable agent.

• Pure pectin is precipitated out by using water soluble organic

solvent, washed again and dried in vacuum. 79


• Pectin is incompatible with calcium, so necessary precaution

should be taken to keep it away from its metallic salts through out

the process of extraction.

• It is packed in the containers or polyethylene bags for marketing.


Chemical constituents
• Total hydrolysis of pectin yields D-galacturonic acid, methyl

alcohol, small amount of galactose and arabinose.

• Pectin should not contain more than 7% of methoxy groups and

78% of galacturonic acid, calculated with reference to the ash-

free and dried substance. 81


Identification test

• 10% aqueous solution forms stiff gel on cooling.

• To 5 ml 1% solution, add 1 ml 2% solution of potassium

hydroxide and set aside at room temperature for 15 min.

• A transparent gel or semi-gel forms (distinction from

tragacanth). Acidify with dil. HCL acid and shake well.

• A voluminous, colourless, gelatinous ppt forms which

when boiled becomes white and flocculent. 82




Gum acacia, Gum arabic, Indian Gum

Biological source

Indian gum is the dried gummy exudation obtained from the stem

and branches of Acacia arabica.

Family: leguminosae 83


Geographical source:

India, Sri lanka, sudan, Morocco and Africa.

In India- Punjab, Rajasthan, Western ghats. About 85% of world

supply of gum acacia is from sudan. 84


Cultivation and Collection

• It is an common member of dry monsoon forests of India.

• It is an evergreen tree with short trunk.

• Gum is collected from wild grown plants, made free of bark and

foreign organic matter, dried in sun, which also results- in partial

bleaching of gum. 85


Morphological characteristics:
Colour- Tears are cream- brown to red in colour, powder is light

brown in colour

Odour – Odourless

Taste- Bland and mucilaginous

Size and Shape- Irregular brown tears of varying size

Solubility- soluble in water, watery solution is viscous and acidic.

Insoluble in alcohol

Moisture- not more than 15%

Ash- not more than 5%

Indian gum should not contain tannin, starch and dextrin. 86


Chemical constituents

It consists principally of arabin, mixture of calcium, magnesium and

potassium salts of arabic acid.

On hydrolysis gives L- arabinose, L- rhamnose, D- galactose, D-

glucuronic acid.

It also contains an enzyme oxidase and peroxidase. 87


Identification tests

1. Solution of lead subacetate give gelatinises property with

aq. Solution of Indian gum.

2. Drug solution + ruthenium red does not

produce pink colour

3. Drug solution + H2O2 + benzidine in alcohol

blue colour is produced 88



•Suspending agent, emulsifying agent for fixed oils, volatile oils,

liquid paraffin

•Binding agent for the preparation of lozenges, pastilles, compressed


•In combination with gelatin, it is used to form coacervates for

microencapsulation of drugs. 89


Substituents and adulterant:

It is adulterated with gum ghatti, obtained from anogeissus latifolia

belonging to family combretaceae.


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