Cardiovascular System PDF | PPT

Save (0)



17.03.2015 Cardiovascular System Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow Blood & lymphatic vessels in the connective tissue Constituents • Heart • Blood vessels: (a) Arteries (b) Capillaries (c) Veins elastic arteries large vein muscular arteries medium-sized vein arterioles venules capillaries/sinusoids Arteries – ALWAYS carry blood away from the heart Veins – ALWAYS return blood to the heart All are lined on their inner surface by endothelial cells (simple squamous) Gross Anatomy of Circulatory System Pulmonary & Systemic Circulations Pulmonary Circuit • Right ventricle into pulmonary trunk to pulmonary arteries to lungs. • Return by way of 4 pulmonary veins to left atrium. Systemic Circuit Basic structure of arteries 1. Tunica interna or intima: consists of- a. Endothelium b. Basal lamina c. Subendothelial connective tissue d. Internal elastic lamina 2. Tunica media 3. Tunica externa or adventitia Classification of Arteries • Elastic (conducting/ large size arteries): e.g. aorta, pulmonary trunk, carotids, subclavian, axillary, iliac. • Muscular (distributing/ medium size arteries) • Arterioles Elastic arteries • Internal elastic lamina is ill- defined. • Tunica media is predominantly made up of elastic fibres. • Tunica adventitia contains blood vessels (vasa vasorum). Diameter: > 1 cm Elastic artery Muscular arteries (Medium sized arteries) • Internal elastic lamina is clearly visible. • Tunica media is predominantly made up of smooth muscle cells. • Tunica adventitia is thicker than of elastic artery. Diameter: 2-10 mm Arterioles • Arterioles less than 50 μm diameter are called terminal arterioles. • The smallest terminal arteriole is < 12 μm • Internal elastic lamina is poorly developed. • Thin layer of smooth muscle in tunica media. • Precapillary sphincter • Tunica adventitia is thin. • Metarterioles Diameter: < 100 μm Veins • Classified as large, medium & small (venules). • All the 3 tunics are present but not well defined. • T. intima: endothelial cells, basal lamina, subendothelial connective tissue & few smooth muscle cells • T. media: larger amount of collagen, thinner • T. adventitia: thicker Large vein Largest conducting arteries – lead directly from heart, subject to high pressure Superior & inferior Pulmonary trunk & aorta vena cava and their and their major branches tributaries 2 – 9 mm ~ 4 mm External and internal External and internal jugular, brachial & carotids, brachial & femoral veins femoral arteries ~ 10-50 µm ~ 30 µm Capillaries • Thin-walled endothelial-lined microscopic vessels that connect arterioles & venules. • Extensive network • Diameter: 5-10 μm • Flow of blood through capillary is called Microcirculation. • Absence of T. media & adventitia. Types of capillaries • Continuous capillaries • Fenestrated capillaries • Sinusoids Capillaries Only endothelium Variably permeable ~ 8 µm Characterized by circular fenestrae or pores that penetrate the endothelium – permit exchange of larger molecules. somewhat permeable Most body regions Intestinal mucosa, choroid plexus, endocrine glands, kidneys Sinusoids • Resemble fe nestrated capillaries but have: a. irregular shapes b. longer pores c. thinner (or no) basement membrane • Blood flow is sluggish • Found in the liver, bone marrow, spleen etc. • Sometimes called as sinusoidal capillary. References 1. diFiore’s Atlas of Histology with functional Correlations, 12th Edition. 2. Textbook of Human Histology. Inderbir Singh, 1st Edition. 3. Textbook of Histology. GP Pal, 3rd Edition. MCQ • Prominent external elastic lamina is a feature of: 1. Elastic artery 2. Muscular artery 3. Arteriole 4. Vein MCQ • Tunica media is thinner than adventitia in: 1. Elastic artery 2. Muscular artery 3. Arteriole 4. Vein MCQ • All are components of Tunica intima except: 1. Endothelium 2. Subendothelial layer 3. Internal elastic lamina 4. Cell junction MCQ • Internal elastic lamina is poorly developed in: 1. Elastic artery 2. Muscular artery 3. Arteriole 4. Vein MCQ • All are present in Tunica adventitia of arteries except: 1. Collagen fibres 2. Elastic fibres 3. Plasma cells 4. Vasa vasorum