Human anatomy and physiology sem 1 (unit5) hand written notes pdf

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The cardiovascular system, also known as the circulatory system, is responsible for delivering oxygen, nutrients, and hormones to the body’s cells and tissues. It also helps remove waste products from the body.

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. The heart is a muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the body. It has four chambers: the right atrium and ventricle, and the left atrium and ventricle, which are separated by the septum. The right atrium and ventricle pump deoxygenated blood to the lungs for oxygenation, while the left atrium and ventricle pump oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

Blood vessels include arteries, veins, and capillaries. Arteries carry blood away from the heart to the body’s organs and tissues. They have thick walls and are able to withstand the high pressure generated by the pumping heart. Veins carry blood back to the heart and have thinner walls than arteries. Capillaries are tiny blood vessels that connect arteries and veins. They are responsible for exchanging gases, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and the body’s cells.

Blood is composed of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Plasma is a clear, yellowish fluid that makes up about 55% of blood volume. It carries nutrients, hormones, and waste products. Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, are responsible for carrying oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues. They make up about 45% of blood volume. White blood cells, or leukocytes, help fight infection and disease. Platelets are small cells that help in blood clotting.

The cardiovascular system is essential for overall health and well-being. It helps regulate body temperature, maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, and transport immune cells to fight infection. Maintaining a healthy cardiovascular system requires a balanced diet, regular exercise, and avoiding high-risk behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.