Pharmaceutical inorganic chemistry sem1 (unit2) hand written notes pdf

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Acids, bases, and buffers are important concepts in chemistry.

Acids: An acid is a chemical species that donates (loses) a proton or hydrogen ion (H+) in a chemical reaction. Acids increase the concentration of H+ ions in a solution. Common examples of acids include vinegar, lemon juice, hydrochloric acid, or sulfuric acid.

Bases: Bases are chemical species that can accept (gain) a proton, hydrogen ion (H+), or donate a pair of electrons. Bases decrease H+ ion concentration in the solution or increase hydroxide ion (OH-) concentration. Common examples of bases include baking soda, soap, bleach, or ammonia.

Buffers: Buffers are solutions that can resist changes in pH when small amounts of acid or base are added. In other words, buffers are mixtures of weak acids and their conjugate bases or weak bases and their conjugate acids. Buffers can keep the pH of the solution relatively stable even if other strong acids or bases are added to it. In biological systems, buffers are essential for maintaining the pH within a narrow range for optimal enzyme activity and cell function.

Overall, acids, bases, and buffers are important concepts in chemistry that play crucial roles in many chemical reactions and biological processes.