Save (0)






Contents of this chapter

• Introduction

• History of Price regulation in India

• Objectives and Definition

www.DuloMix.com 2


Learning Objectives

• At the end of this lecture, student will be able to

– Define the terminologies of DPCO

– Describe the history of Price regulation in India

– Discuss the objectives of DPCO

www.DuloMix.com 3


History of Price regulation in India

www.DuloMix.com 4


Drug Price Control Order 1995

• The drug price control order (DPCO) is an order issued by the government under the

Essential Commodities Act, 1955 which enables it to fix the prices of some essential

bulk drugs and their formulations.

• The origin of this control dates back to 1970 when for the first time the government

placed limits on profitability of pharmaceutical companies.

www.DuloMix.com 5


Why under Essential Commodities act????

• Since drugs are essential for the health of the society

Are all the drugs marketed under price control???

• Only 74 out of about 500 commonly used bulk drugs are kept under

statutory price control

www.DuloMix.com 6


DPCO provides

• The list of price controlled drugs.

• Procedures for fixation of prices of drugs.

• Method of implementation of prices fixed by Government.

• Penalties for contravention of provisions

**All formulations containing the bulk drugs either in a single or combination

form fall under the price cownwtrwo.DlucloaMteixg.coomry. 7


✓ To achieve adequate production

✓ To regulate equal distribution

✓ To maintain and increase supply of bulk drugs

✓ To make at fair prices.

✓ To ensure availability, at reasonable prices of essential and life saving and

prophylactic medicines of good quality.

✓ Promoting the rational use of drugs in the country

✓ To encourage cost-effective production with economic sizes

www.DuloMix.com 8


National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA)

• Is an independent body of experts established on 29th August 1997
entrusted with —-The task of fixation/ revision of prices of pharmaceutical products (

bulk drugs and formulations)

—-Enforcement of provisions of the DPCO

—- Monitoring of the prices of controlled and decontrolled drugs in the


www.DuloMix.com 9



Bulk Drugs :-
It means any pharmaceutical, chemical and biological or plant product that conforms to
Pharmacopoeial standards specified in D&Cact, 1940.

Ceiling Price:-
Price fixed by government for scheduled formulation.
A single maximum selling price that is applicable through out the country

Drug :-
Substance intended to be used for or in the diagnosis, treatment, or prevention of any

disease or disorder in human or animal.
Retail price :-

Retail price of drug fixed in accordance with provisions of DPCO 1995 and include ceiling

Scheduled bulk drug :-
It means bulk drug specified in first schedule.

www.DuloMix.com 10


DPCO 2013
➢ The DPCO 2013 empowers the National Pharmaceutical Pricing Authority (NPPA) to

regulate prices of 348 essential drugs along with their specified strengths and dosages

under NLEM 2011.

❖Main Features of the DPCO 2013 IMP

1) The new order will bring 348 drugs & their 652 formulations under price control.

2) The new policy uses a market-based pricing mechanism against the earlier proposed

cost-plus method. The ceiling price would be calculated by taking the simple average of

prices of all brands of a drug with a market share of 1% or more.

3) All strengths and dosages specified in the NLEM (National list of Essential Medicines)

will be under price control www.DuloMix.com 11


4) Margins of wholesalers & retailers have been cut down to 8% & 16%


5) Companies selling medicines above the government-mandated ceiling rated would

have to slash prices to meet the demands of new rules, but those selling drugs below

the ceiling price wouldn’t be allowed to raise prices.

6) Firms that launch new medicines can sell them at or below government-set price


7) Existing firms will not be allowed to stop production of any drug without permission

from the government.

8) Drug producers will be permitted an annual increase in the retail price in sync with
www.DuloMix.com 12

the wholesale price index.


Which drugs will come under price control?
• This order doesn’t cover patented drugs. Earlier in March this year the

Department of pharmaceuticals (DOP) had issued a draft proposal on price

negotiation of patented drugs.

• Prices of 652 formulations spanning over 27 therapeutic classes are regulated by

DPCO 2013.

• Prices of some additional anti-cancer drugs including the much talked about

Imatinib, Carboplatin, Dacarbazine, Daunorubicn, Chlorambucil, Oxaliplatin and

some anti-retroviral cocktails like Zidovudine-Lamivudine-Nevirapine and

Stavudine- Lamivudine will now be regulated by the current order.

• However in certain emergency case, the patents can be broken down and the

drugs can be released into the market.
www.DuloMix.com 13


Prices of Bulk Drugs
❑ Government has power to fix the maximum sale price.

While fixing the sale price government shall take into
following considerations:-

➢ Post-tax return of 14% on net worth.
➢ Return of 22% on capital employed.
➢ On the basic stage of production, post tax return of 18% on net worth or 26%

on capital employed
➢ At the time of production of drug, manufacturer fill detail in form-1 and give

necessary information to government within 15 days.
➢ Make necessary inquiry and then government fix maximum sale price if bulk

drug and noted in official gazette.
➢ Govt. also fix or revise the price of non-scheduled bulk drugs.

www.DuloMix.com 14


Information Required from Manufacturer to Government

➢ For the both scheduled and non-scheduled bulk drugs

➢ List of drug produced with cost in form 1 and 2 resp.

➢ But for scheduled bulk drugs it should given by 30 september every year.

www.DuloMix.com 15




R.P. = ( M.C.+C.C.+P.M.+P.C. )X( 1+ MAPE / 100 ) + ED.


www.DuloMix.com 16


How Prices are Calculated & Fixed – DPCO 2013
The ceiling price of a scheduled formulation of specified strengths and dosages as specified under

the first schedule shall be calculated as under:
Step1: First the Average Price to Retailer of the scheduled formulation i.e. P(s) shall be
calculated as below:
Average Price to Retailer, P(s) = (Sum of prices to retailer of all the brands and generic versions of

the medicine having market share more than or equal to one percent of the total market
turnover) / (Total number of such brands and generic versions of the medicine having market
share more than or equal to one percent of total market turnover on the basis of moving
annual turnover for that medicine.)

Step2: Thereafter, the ceiling price of the scheduled formulation i.e. P(c) shall be
calculated as below:

P(c) = P(s).(1+M/100), where
P(s) = Average Price to Retailer for the same strength and dosage of the medicine as calculated in

step1 above.
M = % Margin to retailer and its value =16

www.DuloMix.com 17


DPCO 2013
Margin to retailer: While fixing a ceiling price of scheduled formulations and retail

prices of new drugs, sixteen percent of price to retailer as a margin to retailer shall
be allowed.

Maximum retail price:

(1) The maximum retail price of scheduled formulations shall be fixed by the
manufacturers on the basis of ceiling price notified by the Government plus local
taxes wherever applicable, as under:

Maximum Retail Price = Ceiling price + Local Taxes as applicable

(2) The maximum retail price of a new drug shall be fixed by the manufacturers on the
basis of retail price determined by the Government plus local taxes wherever
applicable, as under:

Maximum Retail Price = Retail Price + Local Taxes as applicable
www.DuloMix.com 18


What’s new in this DPCO?
• New Pricing methodology: Earlier method used manufacturing costs as a basis to

calculate ceiling prices

• This DPCO 2013 excludes bulk drugs from price alterations but formulation prices will


What this means: API/Bulk Drug Manufacturing, which has seen declining trend for the

past many years now will have an upsurge (hopefully)

• DPCO 2013 promotes R&D by excluding new drug, new process or NDDS from DPCO for

5 years

www.DuloMix.com 19


Power to Fix Retail Price of Scheduled Formulation

➢ Government fix the retail price of bulk drug.
➢ Manufacturer use drugs in scheduled formulation.
➢ For price revision of such formulation manufacturer should apply within

30 days.
➢ From date of receipt of complete information govt. Fix retail price within

2 months.
• Without approval of government,
• Manufacturer should not increase retail price of drug.

• Manufacturer should not marketed new formulation.

• No person shall sell imported scheduled formulation.

www.DuloMix.com 20


Power to Fix Ceiling Price of Scheduled Formulation
➢ Government fix the ceiling price of scheduled formulation.

➢ Ceiling price for formulation including those sold under generic name.

➢ Fixed revised ceiling price for schedule formulation either on it’s own motion or
on application made in prescribed form.

Power to Revise Price of Bulk Drug and Formulation

➢Government fix or revise retail price of one or more formulation.

➢As the pre-tax return on sales turnover of formulation then the scheduled and
non-scheduled formulation.

www.DuloMix.com 21


Fixation of Price Under Certain Circumstances

➢ If any manufacturer of bulk drug fails to submit the application for fixation or
revision of price or fails to give information within specified time period.

➢ Then government fix price of the bulk drug.

Power to Recover Overcharged Amount

➢ If any manufacturer or importer charging higher price than the price fixed by

➢ Then government may recover the overcharged amount.

www.DuloMix.com 22


Control of Sale Prices of Bulk Drug and Formulation

➢ No person or retailer shall sale the drug/ formulation
➢ To any customer at increasing price specified in current price list indicated on

container label.

Sale of Split Quantity of Formulation

➢No dealer shall sell the loose quantity of formulation

➢At price exceeding pro-rata prices of formulation plus 5%.

www.DuloMix.com 23


Schedules Related to DPCO act, 1995


▪ First Schedule includes 76 bulk drugs.

▪ Eg. Penicillin, ranitidine, chloroquine etc

www.DuloMix.com 24



❖ Different forms included :-
▪ Form- 1 :- application for fixation/ revision of price.
▪ Form- 2 :- information related with price of non-scheduled bulk drug.
▪ Form-3 :- application for approval/revision of price of scheduled

▪ Form-4 :- application for approval/revision of price of scheduled formulation

imported in finished form.
▪ Form-5 :- form of price list
▪ Form- 6 :- yearly information on turnover and allocation of sales and


www.DuloMix.com 25



Category A :- Large unit with turnover exceeding rs. 6 crores per annum.

Category B :- Medium sized unit turnover between rs. 1 crore to 6 crore per

Category C :- Other units with turnover of less than rs. 1 crore per annum.

www.DuloMix.com 26




❑ Shall be punishable with imprisonment for one year and also
liable to fine.

❑ In the case of any other order, with imprisonment for not less than
three months but which may extend to seven years and also be liable to

www.DuloMix.com 27


What companies do to avoid getting into DPCO

• Changing the composition of the formulation by putting in ingredients (if

possible) that are not subject to price control.

• Transferring the brand to a small–scale unit, which produces the product for a


• Case studies:

• Pfizer for instance did change the composition of its B–complex vitamin brand

Becousules (which ranks second in branded sales in the country). However the

DPCO clamped down on this move and brought the entire range of B–complex

vitamins under its purview.

www.DuloMix.com 28



• Bulk drug means any pharmaceutical, chemical and biological or plant product

conform to Pharmacopoeial standards specified in d & c act, 1940.

• Ceiling Price is Price fixed by government for scheduled formulation

• Drug is a Substance intended to be used for or in the diagnosis, treatment, or

prevention of any disease or disorder in human or animal

• To achieve adequate production, regulate equal distribution, maintain and increase

supply of bulk drugs and make at fair prices