INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND NUTRACEUTICALS PPT/PDF

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INTRODUCTION TO FUNCTIONAL FOODS AND NUTRACEUTICALS

History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Objectives

After studying this module, the student shall be able to:

• explain the concept of functional foods and nutraceuticals.

• describe the history of functional foods

• define functional foods and nutraceuticals

Introduction

The roles and requirements of six major nutrients viz., carbohydrates,

proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and water present in foodsare known to us.

Besides these nutrients, there are certain health promoting essential nutritional

factors present in foods whichhave protective and preventive functions for our body.

The health promoting effect of foods beyond their nutritional value is gaining wide

popularity. This extensive vision of nutrition has led to the concept of “functionality”.

 

UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

The principal reasons for the growth of the functional food market are aging

population, health trends and public education. Due to increase in life expectancy,

the number of elderly continues to rise, to the total population. Obesity, heart

disease, cancer, osteoporosis and arthritis continue to climb in countries throughout

the world. The advent of the internet has opened the doors for a wealth of

information. People have become more nutrition savy than ever before. Their

curiosity regarding health care information can be met by just a single click which

can give them vast information about the etiology, prevention, and treatment of

various diseases. Similarly, the consumers are becoming more alert to health claims

and are eager to know advanced information about food products than before.

History of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

 

During the last 2000 years, from the time of Hippocrates (460–377 BC) to the

beginning of modern medicine, there was little distinction made between food and

drugs. Hippocrates, the father of medicine, clearly recognized the essential

relationship between food and health and emphasized that ‘‘…differences of

diseases depend on nutriment’’. The concept of “Medicine and food are

isogonics”originated in ancient China and transported to Japan long ago” similarly

the doctrine of Hippocrates, “Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food,”

has had a rebirth.

In 1984, the first national project on functional foods was initiated by a research

team headed by Professor Soichi Arai at the University of Tokyo. The project

entitled “Systematic analysis and development of food functions’was sponsoredby

Japan’s Ministry of Education, Science and Culture (MESC). The food value criteria

were defined by three categories:

1. Primary function identified as functions of nutrients.

2. Secondary function referring to sensation.

3. Tertiary function as body modulating function of non –nutrients

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UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

During 1988-1991, the second project was taken up by Arai et al. on ‘analysis of

body modulating (Tertiary) functions of foods’. The thrust of the project was on the

tertiary functions of foods i.e., body modulating function of non-nutrients. With the

advancement of DNA microarray techniques, the last project was undertaken in

1992 which focused on “Analysis and molecular design of functional foods”. Thesub

themes were body-regulating food factors, body defending food factors and

development of technological basis specific to designing functional foods at

molecular level.

In 1989, Dr Stephen L. DeFelice, M.D coined the term nutraceutical which is a

hybrid or contraction of nutrition and pharmaceutical who established the

Foundation for Innovation in Medicine in 1976 in New York, US.

In 1991, the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan, launched the world’s first

policy viz., “Foods for Specified Health Uses” (FOSHU) for legally permitting the

commercialization of some functional foods. Each of the FOSHU products claimed

a certain degree of health benefit. The first FOSHU product approved in 1993 was

‘hypoallergenic rice’ developed after the immunological studies. These scientific

activities was reported in Nature news with the headline,“Japan explores the

boundary between food and medicine;” whichtook everyone back of the old day’s

saying, “Medicine and food are isogonics’.”

The research team investigated hundreds of fruits and vegetables scientifically

for functional food components. The advancement in this latest science also

involved the introduction of sophisticated methods viz., assessment of the oxidative

stress due to food factors using “XYZ’ evaluation technique, compilation of data on

the structure- function relationships of non nutrients and evaluation of individual food

factors at the molecular level using DNA microarray techniques.

The initiation of functional food science as well as the implementation of the

FOSHU policy in Japan, had a strong impact on many countries in the world,

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UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

particularly in Europe.In 1995, the UK Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food

defined (although temporarily) functional foods as those having components

incorporated that confer specific medical or physiological benefits, other than

nutritional effects. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI ) Europe addressed

the present status by claiming that they stand today at the threshold of a new frontier

in nutritional science. They also stated that the concept of food is changing from a

past emphasis on eating tosatiate hunger, into an emphasis on the potential uses of

food to reduce the risk of chronic illness.

Nutrigenomic research institutions around the world were forming consortia to

merge their activities aiming at evidence –based functional food science through

cooperation in the development of systems biology.In North America, the National

Institute of Health (NIH) provided financial support for an ongoing research project

on the relationship between diet and gene and between diet and disease in

collaboration with nine research centres and four external affiliated organizations.

Europe launched a, six years project in January 2004 that commenced with the

participation of 22 research institutions from ten different countries. For this project,

the European Union allocated a budget of 17.3 million Euro. A research organization

was set upin Oceania that specializes in gut health research andNew Zealand and

Australia played a leading role.

These initiatives were replicated in Canada, China, South Korea, Singapore, and

other countries to form a global network. These countries launched a clear strategy

to exchange information with each other and to invest their research resources in the

domains where they can capitalize on their own strengths.

The history of functional food would be incomplete if we do not mention the views of

Dr Stephen Defelice, described by Jeffrey K. Aronson (2017) in his article published

in British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Dr Stephen Defelice, originally invented

the term ‘nutraceutical’ in 1989. During the 25th National Congress of the Italian

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Chemical Society-SCI, held at the University of Calabria in 2014, he delivered a

lecture on ‘Nutrition stymied: the nutraceutical solution’ in which he confessed that

nutraceuticals do not work, and ‘the quest to demonstrate whether … long-term

supplementation [with nutraceuticals] can prevent serious diseases … has come to

an end’.

He stated that ‘within the past decade, the past ten years, many studies now

have been published on dietary supplements and diets … and most of them have

proven that these things do not work. The results of clinical studies have shown

that they do not work. Later Dr Defelice explained that it may be because cell does

not need them”. If the cells are not deficient in them, it does not need them. The

cells just do what they want to do. … There’s a lack of efficacy. Why is there a lack

of toxicity? And then he came up with his theory. It’s called the cell–nutraceutical

acceptance–rejection theory’. Dr DeFelice did not explain his theory; he merely

said, ‘it is self-explanatory.

 

Health Claims

Researches in functional foods are fruitless if not used for human health and

hence comes the role of regulations. The health claim for each functional food were

defined by the three different phrases viz., nutrient function claims, other function

claims, and reduction of disease risk claims.

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UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

We have already studied that Japan was the first country to legalise health

claims under Foods for Specified health uses (FOSHU) in 1991. There were ten

categories of health claims under FOSHU which are presented in Table 1.

Table 1: Categories of Health Claims under “Foods for Specified Health Uses”

(FOSHU).

Categories Health claims

Category 1 Modulation of gastrointestinal conditions

Category 2 Modulation of serum cholesterol level

Category 3 Modulation of serum cholesterol level and gastrointestinal conditions

Category 4 Modulation of blood pressure

Category 5 Acceleration of mineral absorption

Category 6 Acceleration of mineral absorption and modulation of gastrointestinal

conditions

Category 7 Promotion of bone health

Category 8 Maintenance of healthy teeth

Category 9 Modulation of blood sugar level

Category 10 Modulation of serum triacylglycerol level and blood fat percentage

Since 1991 about 1271 products have been given green signal under FOSHU.

Recently about 400 foods have been approved under Japan’s 2015 “Foods with

Function Claims”(FFC) regulation.

In the United Statesthe structure/function claims were expressed in the Dietary

Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA) in 1994. European Union established a

science-based approach for concepts in functional food science as “Functional food

Science in Europe” (FUFOSE), in 1996. Codex adopted the guidelines in which the

nutrient function claim was included in 1997. In India, the nutraceutical regulation was

implemented in 2010 under The Food Safety and Standard Authority of India (FSSAI)

Act.

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UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Let us now take a quick look of important milestones in the history of functional foods

and Nutraceuticals.

Table 2: Important milestones in the history of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

 

Year Event

1984 Dr Arai et al. launched project on “Systematic analysis and development of

food functions’ sponsoredby Japan’s Ministry of Education, Science and

Culture.

1988 Arai et al. took up second project on ‘analysis of body modulating

(ie.,Tertiary) functions of foods’.

1989 Stephen L. DeFelice, M.D.,Founder and Chairman of Foundation for

Innovation in Medicine New York, US coinedthe term nutraceutical

fromnutrition and pharmaceutical

1991 The Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan, launched the world’s first policy

“Foods for Specified Health Uses” (FOSHU) for legally permitting the

commercialization of some functional foods

1992 Third project by Arai et al. on “Analysis and molecular design of functional

foods”.

1993 “ Hypoallergenic rice” was the first FOSHU product approved, developed

after the immunological studies.

1994 The structure/function claims were expressed in the Dietary Supplement

Health Education Act (DSHEA) in United States.

1996 Functional food science in Europe (FUFOSE) establish a science-based

approach for concepts in functional food science.

1997 Codex adopted the guidelines in which the nutrient function claim was

included.

2010 In India, the nutraceutical regulation was implemented under The Food

Safety and Standard Authority of India (FSSAI) Act.

2014 Dr. Stephen L. DeFelice, M.D., confessed that nutraceuticals do not work,

and ‘the quest to demonstrate whether … long-term supplementation [with

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UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

nutraceuticals] can prevent serious diseases … has come to an end’

 

Definitions of Functional foods and Nutraceuticals

Functional foods are found in many fruits, vegetables, grains, herbs and spices to

provide a health benefit, lower the risk of certain diseases or affect a particular body

process. There are different terminologies used for functional foods such

as:Nutraceuticals, designer foods, vita foods, pharma foods, medicinal foods,

prescriptive foods, therapeutic foods, super foods, foodiceuticals and medifoods.

There were no universally accepted definitions for nutraceuticals and functional foods till

2017, although commonality clearly existed between the definitions offered by different

health-oriented professional organizations. But finally in 2017 Functional Food Centre

USA defined functional foods by providing clarity and a more comprehensive

understanding of its meaning.

The following health oriented professional organizations have defined functional foods

and nutraceuticals.

• The International Food Information Council (IFIC),USA

• The International Life Sciences Institute of North America (ILSI)

• Health Canada

• Nutrition Business Journal (US)

• The American Dietetic Association (ADA)

• The American Council on Science and Health

• The Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences (IOM)

• According to the International Food Information Council (IFIC), functional foods

are “foods or dietary components that may provide a health benefit beyond basic

nutrition.”

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UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

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• The International Life Sciences Institute of North America (ILSI) has defined

functional foods as “foods that by virtue of physiologically active food

components provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition”.

• Health Canada defines functional foods as “similar in appearance to a

conventional food, consumed as part of the usual diet, with demonstrated

physiological benefits, and/or to reduce the risk of chronic disease beyond basic

nutritional functions”.

• The Nutrition Business Journalclassified functional food as “food fortified with

added or concentrated ingredients to functional levels, which improves health or

performance.Functional foods include enriched cereals, breads, sport drinks,

bars, fortified snack foods, baby foods, prepared meals, and more”.

• The American Dietetic Association (ADA) states that functional foods include

“whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods, have a potentially

beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet and on a

regular basis, at effective levels,”

• The American Council on Science and Health states that functional foods are

“whole, fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods that provide health benefits beyond

the provision of essential nutrients, when they are consumed at efficacious levels

as part of a varied diet on a regular basis.”

• The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of

Medicine (IoM), states that functional foods are “those in which the

concentrations of one or more ingredients have been manipulated or modified to

enhance their contribution to a healthful diet”.

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UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

• European Commission Concerted Action on Functional Food Science in Europe

considers foods to be functional if they have a beneficial effect on one or more

functions of the body and are still in the form of food, not a dietary supplement.

• In Japan, the FOSHU organization states that functional foods are “processed

foods containing ingredients that aid specific body functions in addition to being

nutritious”.

• The Functional Food Center/Functional Food Institute (FFC), Dallas, USA (2017)

defines “functional foods” as: “Natural or processed foods that contain biologically active

compounds; which, in defined, effective, and non-toxic amounts, provide a clinically

proven and documented health benefit utilizing specific biomarkers for the prevention,

management, or treatment of chronic disease or its symptoms”

Nutraceuticals

The above definitions given by the Health oriented professional organizations were for

functional foods. The Foundation for Innovation in Medicine, the Nutrition Business

Journal and the Health Canada defined nutraceuticals as follows.

• The term nutraceutical is a hybrid or contraction of nutrition and pharmaceutical.It

was coined in 1989 by Stephen L. DeFelice, M.D. who established the

Foundation for Innovation in Medicine in 1976 in New York, US; which is an

educational foundation established to encourage discoveries in medicine.

Stephen L. DeFelice, M.D.

The founder and chairman of Foundation for Innovation in Medicine

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UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals
Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

 

1. Dr Stephen DeFelice (1992) defined nutraceutical as any substance that may be

considered a food or part of a food and provides medical or health benefits

including the prevention and treatment of disease.Such products may range from

isolated nutrients, dietary supplements and diets to genetically engineered

‘‘designer’’ foods, herbal products and processed products such as cereals,

soups and beverages.”

• On the other hand, Health Canada states that nutraceuticals are a product that is

“prepared from foods, but sold in the form of pills or powders (potions), or in other

medicinal forms not usually associated with foods.A nutraceutical is

demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against

chronic disease.

• The Nutrition Business Journal states that it uses the term nutraceutical for

anything that is consumed primarily or particularly for health reasons. Based on

that definition, a functional food would be a kind of nutraceutical.

• In India, nutraceutical are the food components made from herbal or botanical

raw materials, which are used for preventing or treating different types of acute

and chronic maladies.

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UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Let us now take a glance of regulatory bodies of Japan, Europe and America about

the concept of functional foods.

According to the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, Foods for Specified

Health Uses (FOSHU) are:

• Foods that are expected to have a specific health effect due to relevant

constituents, or foods from which allergens have been removed, and ·

foods where the effect of such an addition or removal has been

scientificallyevaluated, and permission has been granted to make claims

regarding thespecific beneficial effects on health expected from their

consumption.

• Foods identified as FOSHU are required to provide evidence that the final

foodproduct, but not isolated individual component(s), is likely to exert a

health orphysiological effect when consumed as part of an ordinary diet.

• Moreover,FOSHU products should be in the form of ordinary foods (i.e.

not pills orcapsules).

Functional food: a European consensus by Functional Food Science in

Europe (FUFOSE):The unique features of functional foods are:

• being a conventional or everyday food

• to be consumed as part of the normal/usual diet

• composed of naturally occurring (as opposed to synthetic)

components,perhaps in unnatural concentration or present in foods that

would notnormally supply them

• having a positive effect on target function(s) beyond nutritive

value/basicnutrition

• may enhance well-being and health and/or reduce the risk of disease

orprovide health benefits so as to improve the quality of life including

physical,psychological and behavioural performances

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UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

• have authorised and scientifically based claims.

Dietary Supplement Health Education Act (DSHEA)) United States (1994) had

formally defined “dietary supplement“ using several criteria.

• A dietary supplement is a product (other than tobacco) that is intended to

supplement the diet that bears or contains one or more of the following dietary

ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a

dietary substance for use by man to supplement the diet by increasing the total

daily intake, or a concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combinations of

these ingredients.

• is intended for ingestion in pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid form.

• is not represented for use as a conventional food or as the sole item of a meal or

diet.

• is labeled as a “dietary supplement.“

• includes products such as an approved new drug, certified antibiotic, or licensed

biologic that was marketed as a dietary supplement or food before approval,

certification, or license (unless the Secretary of Health and Human Services

waives this provision).

Conclusion

Functional foods are generally linked to health promotion. The physiological effects

of functional food or bioactive compounds may vary, but their categories of action

include physical performance, cognitive, behavioral, and psychological function,

organ or system function, and combating chronic disease.

In this section we have studied that the term ‘ functional food’ was born in Japan and

the Japanese were the first to observe that food could have a role beyond nutrient

supply. Japan was the first country to legislate these products as ‘ Foods of

Specified health use’ .Europe and the American countries incorporated later the

concept of added value of food.

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UGC PG MOOC on Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

The Functional Food Center (FFC), Functional Food Institute, USA (2017) defines

“functional foods” as: “natural or processed foods that contain biologically active

compounds; which, in defined, effective, and non-toxic amounts, provide a clinically

proven and documented health benefit utilizing specific biomarkers for the

prevention, management, or treatment of chronic disease or its symptoms”

Nutraceuticals are defined as chemical components of food when ingested in

appreciable amounts demonstrate attributes such as good bioavailability, bio-

efficacy and exert positive effects on health characterized by disease prevention and

alleviation.

References

1. Andlauer, W. & Furst P. (2002). Nutraceuticals: a piece of history,present status

and outlook. Food Research Interntional , 171-176

2. Arai, S., Osawa, T., Ohigashi, H., Yoshikawa, M., Kaminogawa, S., Waranabe,

M., & Ogawa, T., Okubo K., Watanabe, S., Nishino, H., Shinohara K., Esashi,

T., & Hirahara T. (2001). A Mainstay of Functional Food Science in Japan-

History, Present Status and Future Outlook. Bioscience, Biotecnology and

Biochemistry, 1-13.

3. Arai, S., Vattem, D., & Kumagai, H. (2016). Functional Foods-History and

Concepts. In D. A. Vattam, & M. Vatsala, Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and

Nautral Products, Concepts and Applications, Lancaster,Pennsylvania,U.S.A.:

DEStech Publications Inc., 1-18

4. Gur, J., Mawuntu, M., & Martirosyan, K. (2018). FFC’s Advancement of

Functional Food Definition. Functional Foods in Health and Disease, 385-397.

5. Aronson, J.K, (2017). REVIEW-THEMED ISSUE, Defining ‘nutraceuticals’:

neither nutritious nor pharmaceutical. British Journal of Clinical Pharmocol, 8-19.

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Module 1: History and Definition of Functional Foods and Nutraceuticals

6. Kalra E, K. (2003). Nutraceutical – Definition and Introduction . AAPS Pharm Sci,

1-2.

7. Singh, J., & Singh, S. (2012). Classification, Regulatory Acts And Applications Of

Nutraceuticals for Health. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological

Sciences , 177-187.

8. Wildman, R., & Kelley, M. (2007). Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods. In R.E.C.

Wildman, Handbook on Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods (pp. 1-22). Taylor

and Francis Group: CRC Press.

9. http://egyankosh.ac.in/bitstream/123456789/33348/1/Unit-11.pdf accessed on

12 June 2018

10. http://www.fimdefelice.org accessed on 12th June 2018

 

11. https://www.nutraingredients-asia.com/Article/2016/10/10/Japan-moves-beyond-

FOSHU-Over-400-products-approved-under-new-health-claims-regime-in-last-

year accessed on 1 April 2019

12. https://youtu.be/gCeSLR5PFIc accessed on 1 April 2019

13. https://image.shutterstock.com/image-photo/different-super-foods-bowls-on-

450w-1066222211.jpg accessed on 10 June2019

14. https://image.shutterstock.com/image-photo/fresh-organic-vegetables-wicker-

basket-450w-143906008.jpg accessed on 10 June2019

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