LIPIDS (Waxes, fats, fixed oils) PDF / PPT

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(Waxes, fats, fixed oils)


Contents :

• Castor oil

• Chaulmoogra oil

• Wool Fat

• Bees Wax 2



• Lipids are the large and diverse group of naturally occurring (animal

or plant origin) organic compounds soluble in organic solvents (eg.

Ether, chloroform, acetone, benzene) and are generally insoluble in

water and comprise of fixed oils, fats and waxes.

• The basic function of oils and fats is storage of energy, apart from

several uses in medicine and industries. 3


• They are obtained by expression or extraction methods.

• Several tests and standards such as acid value, saponification

value, iodine value, solubility in various solvents, and specific

gravity are considered for determining their purity and identity. 4


Castor oil
Synonyms: Ricinus oil

Biological source

Castor oil is a fixed oil obtained from the seeds of ricinus

communis (Euphorbiaceae).

Geographical Sources

Native to India. Produced in Brazil, India, China, Russia &

Thailand. 5


Morphological Characteristics:

• Seeds show considerable difference in colour & size.

• They are oval, slightly compressed

• Colour: uniform grey, brown or black, mottled with brown or


• If grown in good conditions, they have very little odour & the

taste is slightly acrid.

• If the tests are broken, rancidity will develop. 6



90% of the world’s castor oil is prepared in India & Brazil. Small

amounts of raw seeds are now exported.

Method of preparation:

Seeds are removed from the testa. Kernels are cold-pressed with a

hydraulic press. Oil is then refined by steaming, filtration &


Cold-expression yields 33% of medicinal oil. Further amounts of

lower quality oil may be obtained by other methods. 7


Morphological characteristics:

Medicinal castor oil is a colourless or pale yellow liquid, with a

slight odour & faintly acrid taste.

Acid value: increases with age. If initially high – indicates the use of

damaged seeds or careless extraction or storage.

Viscosity: Extremely high 8


Uses & actions:

Castor oil is used to treat constipation. It may also be used to clean

out the intestines before a bowel examination/surgery.

Castor oil is known as a stimulant laxative. It works by increasing

the movement of the intestines, helping the stool to come out.

Because of the ricin, the seeds have a much more violent action than

the oil and is not used as a purgative. 9



Castor seeds contain 46-53 % fixed oil.

These fixed oils consist of the glycosides of

– Ricinoleic

– Isoricinoleic

– Steric

– Dihydroxystearic acids

The cake, after expression, contains extremely poisonous toxins

(ricins) 10


Chaulmoogra oil


Gynocardia oil

Hydnocarpus oil 11


Biological source

Chaulmoogra oil is fixed oil obtained by cold expression method

from ripe seeds of Taraktogenos kurzii king,

Hydnocarpus anthelmintic p.,

H. Heterophylla k,

H. Wightiana,

H. Laurifolia,

family flacourtriaceae. 12


Geographical source

Chaulmoogra plants found in myanmar, thailand, east India in assam

and tripura, Sri lanka 13


Description :

Colour : yellow to brownish (liquid yellow)

Odour : characteristic

Taste : some what acrid

Solubility : slightly soluble in alcohol, soluble in chloroform, ether,

benzene, carbon disulphide.

Storage : light and in cool place.

Dose : 0.3 to 1.0 ml by intramuscular subcutaneous injection. 14


Standards :

Weight per ml : 0.935 to 0.960 gm

Acid value : not more than 10

Sap. Value : 195 to 213 4

Iodine value : 93 to 104 5

Specific rotation : +48° to + 60°

Refractive index : 1.472 to 1.47 15


Method of preparation

Seeds are sub-ovoid obtusely angular and 2 cm in length.

Seed contain 40 – 45% fixed oil.

The seeds are decorticated by machine after grading the kernels,

are pressed with hydraulic press and the oil obtained is filtered. 16


Chemical constituents

It contains ester of unsaturated fatty acid of chaulmoogra acid

27% and hydnocarpic acid 48% and glycerides of palmitic acid. 17


Uses :

• It gives strong bactericidal effect against mycobacterium leprae

and m. Tuberculosis.

• It is useful in the treatment of Tuberculosis., Leprosy, psoriasis,

and rheumatism.

• It is used externally only. 18


Substitute and adulteration :

The hydnocarpus oil is replaced by ethyl esters and salts of

hydnocarpic and chaulmoogric acid. 19


Wool Fat


Lanolin, Adeps Lanae

Biological source

Wool fat (anhydrous lanolin) is a purified fat-like substance

prepared from the wool of the sheep, ovis aries (bovidae).

. 20


Geographical source

Lanolin is manufactured in Australia, U.S.A., very less extent in

India 21



Raw wool contains considerable quantities of ‘wool grease’ or crude

lanolin, the potassium salts of fatty acids & earthy matter.

Raw lanolin is separated by ‘cracking’ with sulphuric acid &

purified to be fit for medicinal use.

Purification may be done by centrifuging with water & by

bleaching. 22



Wool fat is a pale yellow, tenacious substance with a faint but

characteristic odour.

It is insoluble in water.

Melting point: 36-42ºC

Soluble: in ether & chloroform.

Like other waxes, it is not readily saponified by aqueous alkali, but with a

alcoholic solution of alkali.

Saponification value: 90 – 105.

Iodine value: 18 – 32.

Acid value: not more than 1 23



25 % water

Cholesterol & isocholesterol (main active constituents).

Unsaturated alcohols

Fatty acids

(- lanoceric ,lanopalmitic & carnaubic fatty acids)


Wool fat is used as an emollient base for creams & ointments. 24


Bees wax
Synonyms : Bees wax,

Biological source

Beeswax is obtained by melting and purifying the honeycomb of

Apis mellifica and other bees.

Zoological origin:

Apis mellifera , Apis dosarta , Apis cerana, Apis indica , Apis florea


Apidae 25


Geographical sources

West Indies, California, Africa, Madagascar & India.

Separate monographs exist for yellow and white beeswax. 26



Worker bees have eight wax-producing mirror glands. The size of

these wax glands depends on the age of the worker and after

daily flights begin these glands gradually atrophy. The new wax

scales are initially glass-clear and colorless becoming opaque


The wax of honeycomb is nearly white, but becomes progressively

more yellow or brown by incorporation of pollen oils and

propolis. 27



Wax is secreted by worker bees in cells on the ventral surface of the

last 4 segments of their abdomen. The wax passes out through

pores in the chitinous plates of the sternum & is used, particularly

by the young workers, to form the comb.

Honey bees use the beeswax to build honeycomb cells In which

their young are raised and honey and pollen are stored. 28


For the wax-making bees to secrete wax, the ambient temperature in

the hive has to be 33 to 36°C (91 to 97 °F).

To produce their wax, bees must consume about eight times as much

honey by mass.

When beekeeper extract the honey, they cut off the wax caps from

each honeycomb cell with an uncapping knife or machine.

The wax may further be clarified by heating in water. 29


Preparation of yellow beeswax:

Yellow beeswax is prepared, after removal of the honey, by melting

the comb under water. This causes solid impurities to sink to the

bottom while any residual honey is dissolved. This is then

strained and the wax is allowed to solidify in suitable moulds. 30


Preparation of white beeswax:

White beeswax is prepared from yellow beeswax which is treated

with charcoal, potassium permangante, chromic acid, or chlorine,

by the slow bleaching action of light, air & moisture.

In this method the melted wax is allowed to fall on a revolving

cylinder which is kept moist. This then slowly becomes bleached.

This is then repeated at least one more time. The wax is finally cast

into circular cakes. 31


Morphological characters:

Beeswax is a yellow-brown or yellow-white solid.

It breaks with a granular fracture & has a characteristic odour.

It is insoluble in water & slightly soluble in cold alcohol, but

dissolves in chloroform and also in warm fixed & volatile oils. 32



Beeswax is a true wax:

• Beeswax is a tough wax formed from a mixture of several


• Consists of 80% myricin (myricyl palmitate) and contains a little

myricyl stearate and also contains Free cerotic acid ,Aromatic

substances . 33


Its main components are;

• Palmitate

• Palmitoleate

• Hydroxypalmitate

• Oleate esters of long-chain (30-32 carbons)

• Aliphatic alcohols

• with the ratio of triacontanyl Palmitate to cerotic acid, the two

principal components, being 6:1. 34



Making of honeycomb foundation

Beeswax is an ingredient in surgical bone wax

Purified and bleached beeswax is used as:

• Coating for cheese

• Protectant of the food as it ages

• Food additive

• As a component of shoe polish, furniture polish

• As a component of modelling waxes

Beeswax is used for the preparation of plasters, ointments and polishes.