Pharmacognosy and phytochemistry sem5 (unit5) hand written notes pdf

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Extraction is the process of separating a substance from a mixture by using a selective solvent or other separation techniques based on the differences in physical and chemical properties of the substances. It is commonly used in the chemical, pharmaceutical, and food industries to isolate and purify compounds from natural sources or synthetic processes.

The extraction process involves several key steps, including:

1. Selection of the solvent: The choice of solvent depends on the property of the compound being extracted, such as solubility, reactivity, and selectivity. Common solvents used for extraction include water, ethanol, acetone, and hexane.

2. Preparation of the sample: The sample is prepared by grinding, boiling, or other methods to facilitate the extraction process.

3. Mixing: The sample and solvent are mixed together, usually in a vessel or container, to allow for the exchange of compounds between the two phases.

4. Separation: The mixture is then separated into two phases, usually by gravity or by using a separatory funnel. The solvent-rich phase containing the extracted compound is separated from the sample-rich phase.

5. Recovery: The solvent-rich phase is then subjected to further processing such as evaporation, distillation, or chromatography to obtain the desired compound.

Extraction techniques can vary depending on the type of compound being extracted and the intended application. Some common extraction techniques include:

1. Solid-liquid extraction (SLE): In this technique, a solid sample is extracted with a liquid solvent to obtain the desired compound.

2. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE): In this technique, two immiscible liquids are used to partition the compound of interest between the two phases.

3. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE): In this technique, a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide is used as the solvent to extract compounds from a sample.

Overall, extraction is a critical step in obtaining high-quality compounds from natural sources or synthetic processes. It requires careful consideration of the solvent choice, sample preparation, and separation method to achieve optimal results.